Proximal Aspect of Biceps: ➤ Tenodesis of the long head of the biceps may offer improved cosmesis, improved strength, and diminished activity-related pain compared with tenotomy, although comparative studies have shown similar outcomes in some patient populations.
Distal Aspect of Biceps: ➤ Operative treatment of both partial and complete distal biceps ruptures results in better outcomes compared with nonoperative care, although the optimal technique and fixation are yet to be determined.
➤ Nonoperative management is an acceptable treatment for patients willing to accept some loss of forearm supination and elbow flexion strength as well as changes in endurance and cosmesis.
1Department of Orthopaedics, Naval Medical Center San Diego, 34800 Bob Wilson Drive, San Diego, CA 92134-1112. E-mail address for L.S. McDonald: Lucas.firstname.lastname@example.org
2U.S. Naval Hospital Yokosuka, Japan, PSC 475, Box 1630, FPO, AP 96350