1. Four tonic reflex movements of the foot can be elicited in normal infants and in some older children with cerebral palsy.
2. The disappearance of these tonic reflexes with growth appears related to maturation of the central nervous system.
3. Certain physiological features of these reflex movements are discussed, including the reflexogenous areas, sensory receptors, reflex arcs, associated movement, and disappearance.
4. These reflexes are of orthopaedic interest in that they may, by their occasional unopposed action, cause deformity.
5. It is suggested that these slow tonic movements represent a summation of many instantaneous reflexes, and that these instantaneous reflexes are distally located trigger mechanisms that initiate balancing reactions.
Copyright 1960 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated