1. Closed reduction of clavicles is not as simple as one is led to believe from reading the literature; and even when the reduction is successful, maintaining of reduction often fails.
2. Even though it is not necessary to secure anatomical reduction to obtain good functional results, the resulting low short shoulder is not always a good result from the patient's point of view.
3. The resulting low shoulder following fractures of the clavicle must result in some degree of scoliosis of the spine.
4. Open reduction of the clavicle with introduction of intramedullary beef-bone graft is a simple operation and gives unusually efficient internal fixation so that the problem of external fixation appliances becomes unimportant.
(C) 1930 All Rights Reserved.The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.