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JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes:
doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3182662215
Clinical Science

Pain, Mood, and Substance Abuse in HIV: Implications for Clinic Visit Utilization, Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence, and Virologic Failure

Merlin, Jessica S. MD, MBA*,†; Westfall, Andrew O. MS*,‡; Raper, James L. DSN, CRNP, JD*; Zinski, Anne PhD*; Norton, Wynne E. PhD§; Willig, James H. MD, MSPH*; Gross, Robert MD, MSCE; Ritchie, Christine S. MD, MSPH; Saag, Michael S. MD*; Mugavero, Michael J. MD, MHSc*

Erratum

Erratum

In the article by Merlin et al, appearing in JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, Vol. 61, No. 2, pp. 164-170 entitled “Pain, Mood, and Substance Abuse in HIV: Implications for Clinic Visit Utilization, Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence, and Virologic Failure”, there were errors in the substance abuse variable. Forty-two individuals were misclassified into the current substance abuse category. Thirty-seven of these individuals are now classified as not having substance abuse and the remaining 5 have missing data. The authors have repeated all of their analyses, and the updated tables are shown below. In addition to these tables, the P value reported in the text for the interaction between pain and substance abuse in Table 2 is now 0.0029 (was 0.0022). These changes do not affect the statistical significance of any of the reported odds ratios, and do not change the conclusions of the article.

JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 63(1):e36-e39, May 1, 2013.

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Abstract

Background: Cooccurring pain, mood disorders, and substance abuse are common in HIV-infected patients. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between pain, alone and in the context of mood disorders and substance abuse, on clinic utilization, antiretroviral therapy adherence, and virologic suppression.

Methods: Pain, mood disorders, and substance abuse were assessed at the first visit. No-show and urgent visits were measured over a 1-year period. Models were adjusted for age, race, sex, insurance status, CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, and HIV risk factor.

Results: Among 1521 participants, 509 (34%) reported pain, 239 (16%) had pain alone, 189 (13%) had pain and a mood disorder, and 30 (2%) had pain and substance abuse. In univariate models, participants with pain, mood disorders, and substance abuse had higher odds of a no-show visit than those without these conditions [odds ratio (OR), 1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1–1.8; OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2–1.9; OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4–2.8, respectively]. In the multivariable model, pain increased the odds of a no-show visit only in participants without substance abuse (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1–1.9) and pain reduced the odds of a no-show visit in participants with substance abuse (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.2–0.9; P for interaction = 0.0022).

Conclusions: In this study, pain increased the odds of no-show visits but only for participants without substance abuse. Because pain, mood disorders, and substance abuse are highly prevalent in HIV-infected patients, our findings have implications for HIV treatment success. Interventions that incorporate pain management may be important for improving health outcomes in patients living with HIV infection.

© 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

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