Background: In antiretroviral-naive patients, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), emtricitabine (FTC), and efavirenz (EFV) demonstrated superior outcomes compared with fixed-dose zidovudine (ZDV)/lamivudine (3TC) and EFV through 48 weeks. Results through a 96-week extension phase are presented.
Methods: In this randomized, open-label, noninferiority trial, 517 antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected patients received TDF, FTC, and EFV (TDF + FTC + EFV) or ZDV/3TC and EFV (ZDV/3TC + EFV). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with an HIV RNA level <400 copies/mL in patients without baseline nonnucleoside resistance.
Results: Through week 96, significantly more patients receiving TDF + FTC + EFV achieved and maintained an HIV RNA level <400 copies/mL (75% receiving TDF + FTC + EFV vs. 62% receiving ZDV/3TC + EFV; P = 0.004). There was a trend toward greater virologic suppression to <50 copies/mL in the TDF + FTC + EFV group (67% vs. 61%; P = 0.16). The TDF + FTC + EFV group demonstrated a significantly greater increase in CD4 count (270 vs. 237 cells/mm3; P = 0.036). No patient developed the K65R mutation. Limb fat at week 96 was significantly greater in the TDF + FTC + EFV group versus the ZDV/3TC + EFV group (7.7 vs. 5.5 kg; P < 0.001).
Conclusion: Over 96 weeks, the combination of TDF, FTC, and EFV was superior to fixed-dose ZDV/3TC + EFV for achieving and maintaining an HIV RNA level <400 copies/mL and an increase in CD4 cells.