The authors used ultrasonography to measure carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) in 36 HIV-infected patients taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (cases) and in two control groups without (control group 1) or with (control group 2) blood lipid and glucose disturbances similar to those of the patients. Case IMT values were 8% higher than control group 1 IMT values (p < .05) but not different from control group 2 IMT values. Positive independent associations of IMT with the total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio and waist circumference existed for cases (p < .05) but not for controls. Case IMT did not correlate with parameters of HIV infection and antiretroviral treatment. This case-control study suggests that lipid disturbances, mainly hypoHDLemia, may be involved in the early atherosclerotic process in HIV-infected patients.