Skip Navigation LinksHome > December 15, 2006 - Volume 43 - Issue 5 > Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate, Emtricitabine, and Efavirenz...
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes:
doi: 10.1097/01.qai.0000245886.51262.67
Clinical Science

Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate, Emtricitabine, and Efavirenz Versus Fixed-Dose Zidovudine/Lamivudine and Efavirenz in Antiretroviral-Naive Patients: Virologic, Immunologic, and Morphologic Changes-A 96-Week Analysis

Pozniak, Anton L MD*; Gallant, Joel E MD, MPH†; DeJesus, Edwin MD‡; Arribas, Jose R MD§; Gazzard, Brian MD*; Campo, Rafael E MD‖; Chen, Shan-Shan MPH¶; McColl, Damian PhD¶; Enejosa, Jeffrey MD¶; Toole, John J MD, PhD¶; Cheng, Andrew K MD, PhD¶; for the Study 934 Group

Free Access
Article Outline
Collapse Box

Author Information

From the *Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, United Kingdom; †Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; ‡Orlando Immunology Center, Orlando, FL; §Hospital de La Paz, Madrid, Spain; ‖University of Miami, Miami, FL; and ¶Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA.

Received for publication June 12, 2006; accepted September 12, 2006.

Funded by Gilead Sciences.

A. L. Pozniak and J. R. Arribas report receiving consulting and lecture fees from Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS), Gilead Sciences, and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). J. E. Gallant reports receiving consulting and/or lecture fees from BMS, Gilead Sciences, and GSK, and receives grant support from Boehringer Ingelheim (BI), BMS, and Gilead Sciences. E. DeJesus and B. Gazzard have received consulting and lecture fees from BI, BMS, Gilead Sciences, and GSK. R. E. Campo reports receiving consulting fees from Gilead Sciences and grant support from Gilead Sciences and BMS. S.-S. Chen, A. K. Cheng, J. Enejosa, D. McColl, and J. J. Toole are employees and stockholders of Gilead Sciences.

Reprints: Andrew K. Cheng, MD, PhD, Gilead Sciences, 300 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, CA 94404 (e-mail: acheng@gilead.com).

Collapse Box

Abstract

Background: In antiretroviral-naive patients, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), emtricitabine (FTC), and efavirenz (EFV) demonstrated superior outcomes compared with fixed-dose zidovudine (ZDV)/lamivudine (3TC) and EFV through 48 weeks. Results through a 96-week extension phase are presented.

Methods: In this randomized, open-label, noninferiority trial, 517 antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected patients received TDF, FTC, and EFV (TDF + FTC + EFV) or ZDV/3TC and EFV (ZDV/3TC + EFV). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with an HIV RNA level <400 copies/mL in patients without baseline nonnucleoside resistance.

Results: Through week 96, significantly more patients receiving TDF + FTC + EFV achieved and maintained an HIV RNA level <400 copies/mL (75% receiving TDF + FTC + EFV vs. 62% receiving ZDV/3TC + EFV; P = 0.004). There was a trend toward greater virologic suppression to <50 copies/mL in the TDF + FTC + EFV group (67% vs. 61%; P = 0.16). The TDF + FTC + EFV group demonstrated a significantly greater increase in CD4 count (270 vs. 237 cells/mm3; P = 0.036). No patient developed the K65R mutation. Limb fat at week 96 was significantly greater in the TDF + FTC + EFV group versus the ZDV/3TC + EFV group (7.7 vs. 5.5 kg; P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Over 96 weeks, the combination of TDF, FTC, and EFV was superior to fixed-dose ZDV/3TC + EFV for achieving and maintaining an HIV RNA level <400 copies/mL and an increase in CD4 cells.

Decreases in mortality have occurred in HIV-infected patients since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) more than 10 years ago.1 Multiple adult HIV treatment guidelines recommend the following as initial antiretroviral therapy: efavirenz (EFV) combined with zidovudine (ZDV) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) plus lamivudine (3TC) or emtricitabine (FTC).2-5 Because most HIV-infected patients are likely to require prolonged and continuous antiretroviral therapy, there is a need for simpler, once-daily, well-tolerated regimens with minimal long-term toxicity and durable efficacy. This report examines the efficacy and tolerability of 2 regimens composed of EFV plus twice-daily fixed-dose ZDV/3TC or once-daily TDF and FTC over 96 weeks from an extension phase of study 934.

Back to Top | Article Outline

METHODS

Design of Study

The complete details for the study design have been previously reported.6 An institutional review board or ethics committee approved the study protocol and informed consent form at each site. Each participant gave written informed consent at the beginning of the study and, again, to continue in the extension phase from week 48 through week 96. In brief, antiretroviral-naive adults with HIV-1 RNA levels >10,000 copies/mL regardless of CD4 cell count were randomized to receive a once-daily regimen of 600 mg of EFV, 300 mg of TDF, and 200 mg of FTC or 600 mg of EFV and a fixed dose combination of 300 mg of ZDV and 150 mg of 3TC twice a day. At screening, patients were required to have an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR; by the Cockcroft-Gault [CG] equation7) >50 mL/min. Patients who were not receiving randomized study medications did not participate in the study past week 48. The comparative portion of the trial was extended to 144 weeks.

Clinical examinations and laboratory analyses were conducted every 12 weeks from week 48 through week 96. A physical examination and assessment of adherence based on pill counts were performed at each visit. At week 48, whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) assessments of body fat composition were performed in a subset of patients (n = 100), whereas at week 96, all patients were asked to have whole-body DEXA scans that were read centrally in a blinded fashion.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Objectives

The primary objective was to assess the noninferiority of TDF + FTC + EFV compared with ZDV/3TC + EFV as measured by an HIV RNA level <400 copies/mL through week 48. The secondary objectives of efficacy were to assess the noninferiority of TDF + FTC + EFV compared with ZDV/3TC + EFV at week 96 by an HIV RNA level <50 copies/mL and <400 copies/mL and by changes in CD4 cell counts.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Safety Analysis

All patients who received at least 1 dose of study medication were included in the safety analysis, which evaluated events that occurred after initiation of the study regimen to within 30 days after discontinuation of the regimen. The severity of adverse events and laboratory abnormalities was graded according to modified common toxicity criteria of the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.8

Back to Top | Article Outline
Statistical Analysis

The primary outcome measures have been previously published.6 In brief, the efficacy endpoint, an HIV RNA level <400 copies/mL, was defined by the time to loss of virologic response (TLOVR) algorithm of the US Food and Drug Administration.9 The TDF + FTC + EFV group was considered noninferior to the ZDV/3TC + EFV group if the lower bound of the 2-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) for the difference between groups (TDF + FTC + EFV − ZDV/3TC + EFV) was −13% or more. Twenty-two patients with baseline resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) were excluded from the primary endpoint analysis.6 Additionally, 24 patients (12 from each from group) who completed the week 48 study with an HIV RNA level <400 copies/mL but did not consent to participate in the study extension from weeks 48 through 96 were also excluded. Thus, we report efficacy on 463 randomized patients. The 2 treatment groups were compared using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test for TLOVR endpoints, Fisher exact test for other categoric data, and Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous data. Analyses of CD4 cell count and safety laboratory data included patients who were on the randomized regimen. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS version 8.2 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC) at Gilead Sciences. There were no stopping rules. All reported P values are 2-sided and not adjusted for multiple testing.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Resistance Analysis

Genotypic and phenotypic resistance analyses were also performed for patients who (1) continued study drugs and had ≥400 copies/mL of HIV RNA on at least 2 consecutive visits after achieving <400 copies/mL (viral rebound) on at least 1 occasion, (2) continued study drugs and had ≥400 copies/mL at week 96, or (3) discontinued study drugs before week 96 and had ≥400 copies/mL of HIV RNA on their last study visit (before discontinuing study drugs).

Back to Top | Article Outline

RESULTS

The demographic data have been published previously.6 As shown in Figure 1 and Table 1, through 96 weeks, significantly more patients achieved and maintained virologic suppression on TDF + FTC + EFV (75%) compared with those on ZDV/3TC + EFV (62%) using an HIV RNA level <400 copies/mL (P = 0.004; 95% CI for the difference between the 2 groups: 4% to 21%). A higher percentage of patients receiving TDF + FTC + EFV also had an HIV RNA level <50 copies/mL (67% vs. 61%; P = 0.16; 95% CI: −2% to 15%), but the difference did not achieve statistical significance. In the TDF + FTC + EFV group, there were 17 patients who achieved and maintained an HIV RNA level <400 copies/mL but failed to achieve and maintain a level <50 copies/mL. At week 96, 13 of these 17 patients had HIV RNA levels <100 copies/mL (6 of 17 had HIV RNA levels <50 copies/mL).

Figure 1
Figure 1
Image Tools
Table 1
Table 1
Image Tools

At week 96, the patients treated with TDF + FTC + EFV experienced significantly greater increases from baseline in absolute CD4 cell counts than the patients given ZDV/3TC + EFV (mean increase of 270 vs. 237 cells/mm3; P = 0.036) (see Figure 2). As measured by pill counts, the mean adherence to treatment was similar between groups (89% for the TDF + FTC + EFV group vs. 87% for the ZDV/3TC + EFV group; P = 0.13).

Figure 2
Figure 2
Image Tools

Significantly more patients discontinued the study in the ZDV/3TC + EFV group (see Table 1). As seen at week 48, there continued to be a significantly greater number of patients receiving ZDV/3TC + EFV who discontinued because of adverse events. Unlike the situation at week 48, however, there was a significant difference in virologic rebound (defined as having a confirmed HIV RNA level >400 copies/mL after achieving <400 copies/mL on 1 occasion) between the ZDV/3TC + EFV group (12 [5%] of 231 patients) compared with the TDF + FTC + EFV group (2 [<1%] of 232 patients; P = 0.007). The number of patients who discontinued the study for reasons other than virologic failure, pregnancy, death, and adverse events was similar between the groups from weeks 48 through 96 (18 patients in the TDF + FTC + EFV group vs. 14 patients in the ZDV/3TC + EFV group).

Back to Top | Article Outline
Genotypic Analysis

Through 96 weeks, 43 patients (29 in the ZDV/3TC + EFV group vs. 14 in the TDF + FTC + EFV group) met criteria for resistance testing, yielding 41 genotypes (2 patients in the ZDV/3TC + EFV group failed for technical reasons; Table 2). The K65R mutation, which can be selected by tenofovir, did not arise in any patient. Between weeks 48 and 96, 2 additional patients in the ZDV/3TC + EFV group developed the M184V/I mutation. Thus, at week 96, there was a significant difference between the 2 groups in the development of the M184V mutation, which was observed in 2 patients in the TDF + FTC + EFV group compared with 9 in the ZDV/3TC + EFV group (P = 0.036). One patient in the ZDV/3TC + EFV group developed the K70R mutation, a thymidine analogue mutation. EFV resistance was the most common form of resistance that developed in both groups; the most common form of EFV resistance observed was the K103N mutation. There was no significant difference in the frequency of EFV resistance development between groups.

Table 2
Table 2
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline
Safety and Tolerability

The safety population comprised 511 patients who received any study medications. Grade 2 through 4 adverse events (regardless of relation to study drug) were observed in 185 (72%) of 257 patients in the TDF + FTC + EFV group and in 180 (71%) of 254 patients in the ZDV/3TC + EFV group (Table 3). Grade 2 through 4 laboratory abnormalities arose in 160 (63%) of 254 patients in the TDF + FTC + EFV group and in 160 (64%) of 251 patients in the ZDV/3TC + EFV group (see Table 3).

Table 3
Table 3
Image Tools

Through 96 weeks, significantly more patients in the ZDV/3TC + EFV group experienced adverse events that resulted in discontinuation of study medications (11% in the ZDV/3TC + EFV group vs. 5% in the TDF + FTC + EFV group; P = 0.008). The adverse events that led to discontinuation in at least 2% of patients in either group include the following: anemia (6% in the ZDV/3TC + EFV group vs. 0% in the TDF + FTC + EFV group), fatigue (2% in the ZDV/3TC + EFV group vs. 0% in the TDF + FTC + EFV group), nausea (2% in the ZDV/3TC + EFV group vs. <1% in the TDF + FTC + EFV group), and rash (<1% in the ZDV/3TC + EFV group vs. 2% in the TDF + FTC + EFV group). Few additional patients discontinued because of adverse events from weeks 48 through 96: 5 in the ZDV/3TC + EFV group and 2 in the TDF + FTC + EFV group. No patient discontinued because of anemia from weeks 48 through 96.

The 2 treatment groups had comparable renal safety over the 96-week study; no patients discontinued the study drug because of renal events. The median GFR, as estimated by the CG equation or modification of diet in renal disease10 (MDRD) equation, demonstrated decreases from baseline to week 96 in both groups (CG equation in mL/min: −1.5 in the TDF + FTC + EFV group vs. −0.3 in the ZDV/3TC + EFV group; P = 0.51 and MDRD in mL/min per 1.73m2: −1.7 in the TDF + FTC + EFV group vs. −1.1 in the ZDV/3TC+EFV group; P = 0.006). Among patients who had baseline mild renal dysfunction (<80 mL/min), the median increase in the GFR from baseline to week 96 was similar (in mL/min: 6.4 in the TDF + FTC + EFV group vs. 2.5 in the ZDV/3TC + EFV group; P = 0.79). Among those with an estimated GFR >80 mL/min at baseline, the median decrease in the GFR from baseline to week 96 was also similar (in mL/min: −2.6 in the TDF + FTC + EFV group vs. −0.6 in the ZDV/3TC + EFV group; P = 0.41) There were no confirmed grade 1 through 4 abnormalities in serum creatinine in the TDF + FTC + EFV group compared with 2 (<1%) patients (grades 1 and 2) in the ZDV/3TC + EFV group. There were no cases of Fanconi syndrome.

Patients who received TDF + FTC + EFV had a lower mean increase in fasting total cholesterol (25 mg/dL in the TDF + FTC + EFV group vs. 38 mg/dL in the ZDV/3TC + EFV group; P < 0.001). Similar fasting low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were seen between groups (18 mg/dL in the TDF + FTC + EFV group vs. 24 mg/dL in the ZDV/3TC + EFV group; P = 0.067). The increase from baseline in fasting high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels was significantly lower in the TDF + FTC + EFV group (10 mg/dL in the TDF + FTC + EFV group vs. 13 mg/dL in the ZDV/3TC + EFV group; P = 0.022). The increase from baseline in the mean fasting triglycerides was not significantly different between the 2 treatment groups (0 mg/dL in the TDF + FTC + EFV group vs. 30 mg/dL in the ZDV/3TC + EFV group; P = 0.115).

Using whole-body DEXA, patients at week 96 receiving ZDV/3TC + EFV had significantly less median total fat and total limb fat than those receiving TDF + FTC + EFV (Table 4). The 2 groups had a similar amount of trunk fat at week 96. Among patients who had DEXA scans at weeks 48 and 96, a significant median loss in limb fat in the ZDV/3TC + EFV group (n = 44) was observed (−0.7 kg; P = 0.001), whereas in the TDF + FTC + EFV group (n = 49), there was a significant median gain in limb fat (0.3 kg; P = 0.01; Fig. 3). Through 96 weeks, patients receiving TDF + FTC + EFV had a significantly greater median increase from baseline in weight of 2.7 kg compared with 0.5 kg in patients receiving ZDV/3TC + EFV (P < 0.001). Notably, both groups entered the trial with a similar median weight.

Table 4
Table 4
Image Tools
Figure 3
Figure 3
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline

DISCUSSION

A superior virologic response was demonstrated for the TDF + FTC + EFV group for the proportion of patients with an HIV RNA level <400 copies/mL at 96 weeks. In contrast to week 48, there was no statistical difference demonstrated for an HIV RNA level <50 copies/mL. The difference between the week 48 and week 96 results is partially accounted for by patients who had 2 consecutive viral loads between weeks 48 and 96 >50 copies/mL but remaining <400 copies/mL.

One concern regarding interpretation of trial results from open-label studies is the potential for bias when discontinuations for nonobjective reasons play a role in the study outcome. It is notable that the discontinuations for events other than adverse events, virologic failure, pregnancy, or death were similar between groups during weeks 48 through 96, however.

A significant difference was seen in the proportion of patients receiving ZDV/3TC + EFV who developed virologic rebound (confirmed HIV RNA level >400 copies/mL) or the M184V/I mutation from baseline through week 96. In study 903, a double-blind antiretroviral-naive trial of TDF, 3TC, and EFV versus stavudine (d4T), 3TC, and EFV, 39% (14 of 36) and 22% (8 of 36) of patients with genotypes in the TDF group developed the M184V/I and K65R mutations through 96 weeks, respectively.11 In this study, however, 14% (2 of 14) of genotyped patients receiving TDF, FTC, and EFV developed the M184V/I mutation and no patient developed the K65R mutation through 96 weeks. The similarly long intracellular half-life of tenofovir diphosphate and FTC triphosphate may have contributed to the resistance findings observed in this study.12,13 Drug penetration into sanctuary sites, which is unknown for some of the agents studied, may also have contributed to the findings. Single mutations lead to large decreases in susceptibility for 3TC, FTC, and EFV, whereas a single mutation leads to much lower decreases in susceptibility for tenofovir. Multiple mutations are required for full loss of susceptibility to ZDV. The 96-week resistance findings from this study, particularly the difference with M184V development, demonstrate how outcomes differ for regimens compared with individual agents.

Renal adverse events were uncommon in this trial, which is consistent with the 48-week results and results from other reported randomized clinical trials involving TDF in treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients6,11,14,15

One of the limitations of the study is the absence of baseline DEXA scans, which hampers our ability to make accurate longitudinal interpretations. At week 64 in the 5005 substudy of AIDS Clinical Trial Group (ACTG) 384, patients receiving ZDV/3TC (n = 41) with nelfinavir or EFV demonstrated a median 4.0% (approximately 0.3 kg) gain of limb fat from baseline.16 Among the 280 patients in this trial who underwent DEXA scanning at week 96, those receiving TDF + FTC + EFV had significantly more total limb fat (2.2-kg difference between groups) than those receiving ZDV/3TC + EFV. Of note, in study 903 at week 96, the TDF + 3TC + EFV group (n = 128) also demonstrated significantly more total limb fat (2.6-kg difference in median limb fat) than the d4T + 3TC + EFV group (n = 134).11 In study 903 at week 144, the significant difference in median total limb fat between the 2 groups increased to 3.6 kg.11 Whether we are likely to see a larger difference in total limb fat at week 144 in this trial is unknown. Nevertheless, the loss of 0.7 kg of total limb fat observed in the subset of patients receiving ZDV/3TC + EFV with week 48 and week 96 data is noteworthy, given the absence of effective nonsurgical treatments for lipoatrophy and the slow and possibly incomplete recovery of limb fat after changing antiretroviral therapy.17-19 The results from week 48 and week 96 indicate an advantage of the TDF + FTC nucleoside backbone with respect to lipoatrophy.

In starting therapy for antiretroviral-naive patients, it is important to minimize the risk of side effects and long-term toxicity, especially those that are difficult to reverse, such as lipoatrophy. The combination of 3TC and ZDV has been a preferred nucleoside backbone for several years. It has been shown in this study and others that starting patients on ZDV increases the risk of short- and long-term side effects compared with the use of alternative agents such as TDF. Long-term follow-up of antiretroviral-naive patients entering clinical trials and randomized to TDF has demonstrated a similar renal safety profile compared with controls out to 3 years.11 EFV, FTC, and TDF were administered as individual agents in this trial, but a fixed-dose combination of TDF + FTC + EFV is now available and may promote better adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Because once-daily therapy is now a reality, the use of ZDV with its twice-daily dosing and side effect profile is likely to become less acceptable to physicians and patients. The durable antiviral response, favorable resistance profile, and excellent safety profile of the TDF + FTC + EFV group in this study provides continued support for the use of this regimen in antiretroviral therapy-naive patients.

Back to Top | Article Outline

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors are grateful to the patients who participated in the study. In addition to the authors, the names of the members of the Study 934 Group have been previously published.6

Back to Top | Article Outline

REFERENCES

1. Palella FJ Jr, Delaney KM, Moorman AC, et al. Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV Outpatient Study Investigators. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:853-860.

2. Hammer SM, Saag MS, Schechter M, et al. Treatment for adult HIV infection: 2006 recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA Panel. JAMA. 2006;296:827-843.

3. US Department of Health and Human Services Panel on Clinical Practices for Treatment of HIV Infection. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents. Available at: http://AIDSinfo.nih.gov. Accessed October 6, 2006.

4. Gazzard B. Writing Committee British HIV Association (BHIVA) guidelines for the treatment of HIV-infected adults with antiretroviral therapy. HIV Med. 2005;(Suppl 2):1-61.

5. Carosi G, Torti C, Andreoni M, et al. Key questions in antiretroviral therapy: Italian Consensus Workshop (2005). J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006;57:1055-1064.

6. Gallant JE, DeJesus E, Arribas JR, et al. Tenofovir DF, emtricitabine and efavirenz vs. zidovudine, lamivudine and efavirenz for HIV. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:251-260.

7. Cockcroft DW, Gault MH. Prediction of creatinine clearance from serum creatinine. Nephron. 1976;16:31-41.

8. National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Division of AIDS table of grading severity of adult adverse experiences. 1992. Available at: http://rcc.tech-res-intl.com/. Accessed October 6, 2006.

9. US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Guidance for industry: antiretroviral drugs using plasma HIV RNA measurements-clinical considerations for accelerated and traditional approval. 2002. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/cder/guidance. Accessed October 6, 2006.

10. Levey AS, Bosch JP, Lewis JB, et al. A more accurate method to estimate glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine: a new prediction equation. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130:461-470.

11. Gallant JE, Staszewski S, Pozniak AL, et al. Efficacy and safety of tenofovir DF vs. stavudine in combination therapy in antiretroviral naïve patients: a 3 year randomized trial. JAMA. 2004;292:191-201.

12. Hawkins T, Veikley W, St. Claire RL, et al. Intracellular pharmacokinetics of tenofovir diphosphate, carbovir triphosphate, and lamivudine triphosphate in patients receiving triple-nucleoside regimens. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005;39:406-411.

13. Wang LH, Begley J, St. Clair RL, et al. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of emtricitabine support its once daily dosing for the treatment of HIV infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2004;20:1173-1182.

14. Johnson M, Grinsztejn B, Rodriguez C, et al. 96-Week comparison of once-daily atazanavir/ritonavir and twice-daily lopinavir/ritonavir in patients with multiple virologic failures. AIDS. 2006;20:711-718.

15. Molina JM, Wilkin A, Domingo P, et al. Once daily vs. twice daily lopinavir/ritonavir in antiretroviral naïve patients: 96 week results. Presented at: Third International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment; 2005; Rio de Janeiro.

16. Dube MP, Parker RA, Tebas P, et al. Glucose metabolism, lipid, and body fat changes in antiretroviral-naive subjects randomized to nelfinavir or efavirenz plus dual nucleosides. AIDS. 2005;19:1807-1818.

17. McComsey GA, Ward DJ, Hessenthaler SM, et al. Improvement in lipoatrophy associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients switched from stavudine to abacavir or zidovudine: the results of the TARHEEL study. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:263-279.

18. Martin A, Smith DE, Carr A, et al. Reversibility of lipoatrophy in HIV-infected patients 2 years after switching from thymidine analogue to abacavir: the MITOX Extension Study. AIDS. 2004;18:1029-1036.

19. Moyle G, Sabin C, Cartledge J, et al. A 48 week, randomized, open-label comparative study of tenofovir DF vs. abacavir as substitutes for a thymidine analog in persons with lipoatrophy and sustained virologic suppression of HAART [abstract 44LB]. Presented at: 12th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; 2005; Boston.

Cited By:

This article has been cited 77 time(s).

Revista Chilena De Infectologia
Considerations in first line antiretroviral Selection for adults
Ceballos, ME
Revista Chilena De Infectologia, 30(5): 522-537.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Emergence of drug resistance in HIV type 1-infected patients after receipt of first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy: A systematic review of clinical trials
Gupta, R; Hill, A; Sawyer, AW; Pillay, D
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 47(5): 712-722.
10.1086/590943
CrossRef
Diabetes Stoffwechsel Und Herz
Metabolic changes under HIV therapy
Rockstroh, JK; Vogel, M
Diabetes Stoffwechsel Und Herz, 17(4): 289-297.

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Reporting of adverse events in randomized controlled trials of highly active antiretroviral therapy: systematic review
Chowers, MY; Gottesman, BS; Leibovici, L; Pielmeier, U; Andreassen, S; Paul, M
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 64(2): 239-250.
10.1093/jac/dkp191
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
Tenofovir-associated renal and bone toxicity
Woodward, CLN; Hall, AM; Williams, IG; Madge, S; Copas, A; Nair, D; Edwards, SG; Johnson, MA; Connolly, JO
Hiv Medicine, 10(8): 482-487.
10.1111/j.1468-1293.2009.00716.x
CrossRef
Antiviral Research
Understanding and managing the adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy
Hawkins, T
Antiviral Research, 85(1): 201-209.
10.1016/j.antiviral.2009.10.016
CrossRef
AIDS Reviews
Epidemiology, Assessment, and Management of Excess Abdominal Fat in Persons with HIV Infection
Moyle, G; Moutschen, M; Martinez, E; Domingo, P; Guaraldi, G; Raffi, F; Behrens, G; Reiss, P
AIDS Reviews, 12(1): 3-14.

Journal of Infectious Diseases
Initiating therapy: When to start, what to use
Hirsch, MS
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 197(): S252-S260.
10.1086/533416
CrossRef
AIDS Reviews
Disorders of Body Fat Distribution in HIV-1-Infected Patients
Moreno, S; Miralles, C; Negredo, E; Domingo, P; Estrada, V; Gutierrez, F; Lozano, F; Martinez, E
AIDS Reviews, 11(3): 126-134.

Hiv Clinical Trials
Unexpected High Rate of Wild-Type HIV-1 Genotype Among Inmates Failing Antiretroviral Therapy
Pontali, E; Ventura, A; Bruzzone, B; Icardi, G; Ferrari, F
Hiv Clinical Trials, 9(5): 341-347.
10.1310/hct0905-341
CrossRef
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate fixed-dose combination: first-line therapy for all?
Goicoechea, M; Best, B
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 8(3): 371-382.
10.1517/14656566.8.3.371
CrossRef
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Chronic administration of tenofovir to rhesus macaques from infancy through adulthood and pregnancy: Summary of pharmacokinetics and biological and virological effects
Van Rompay, KKA; Durand-Gasselin, L; Brignolo, LL; Ray, AS; Abel, K; Cihlar, T; Spinner, A; Jerome, C; Moore, J; Kearney, BP; Marthas, ML; Reiser, H; Bischofberger, N
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 52(9): 3144-3160.
10.1128/AAC.00350-08
CrossRef
Journal of Virology
Viral Sanctuaries during Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in a Nonhuman Primate Model for AIDS
North, TW; Higgins, J; Deere, JD; Hayes, TL; Villalobos, A; Adamson, L; Shacklett, BL; Schinazi, RF; Luciw, PA
Journal of Virology, 84(6): 2913-2922.
10.1128/JVI.02356-09
CrossRef
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Pharmacokinetics and short-term efficacy of a double-boosted protease inhibitor regimen in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected adults
van der Lugt, J; Autar, RS; Ubolyam, S; Garcia, EF; Sankote, J; Avihingson, A; Chuenyam, T; Cooper, DA; Lange, J; Phanuphak, P; Wit, F; Ruxrungtham, K; Burger, D
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 61(5): 1145-1153.
10.1093/jac/dkn050
CrossRef
New Microbiologica
Prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance in untreated persons newly diagnosed with HIV-1 infection
Biagetti, C; Bon, I; Vitone, F; Schiavone, P; Borderi, M; Pavoni, M; Verucchi, G; Re, MC; Chiodo, F
New Microbiologica, 32(2): 129-134.

AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Patient-Reported Outcomes in Virologically Suppressed, HIV-1-Infected Subjects After Switching to a Simplified, Single-Tablet Regimen of Efavirenz, Emtricitabine, and Tenofovir DF
Hodder, SL; Mounzer, K; DeJesus, E; Ebrahimi, R; Grimm, K; Esker, S; Ecker, J; Farajallah, A; Flaherty, JF
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 24(2): 87-96.
10.1089/apc.2009.0259
CrossRef
Journal of Virology
Antiretroviral Therapy in the Clinic
Tsibris, AMN; Hirsch, MS
Journal of Virology, 84(): 5458-5464.
10.1128/JVI.02524-09
CrossRef
Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
Antiretroviral management of treatment-naive patients
Gulick, RM
Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, 21(1): 71-+.
10.1016/j.idc.2007.01.002
CrossRef
Drugs
Efficacy and safety of once-daily regimens in the treatment of HIV infection
Molina, JM
Drugs, 68(5): 567-578.

Antiviral Therapy
Tenofovir use is associated with a reduction in calculated glomerular filtration rates in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study
Fux, CA; Simcock, M; Wolbers, M; Bucher, HC; Hirschel, B; Oprovil, M; Vernazza, P; Cavassini, M; Bernasconi, E; Elzi, L; Furrer, H
Antiviral Therapy, 12(8): 1165-1173.

AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Hepatitis C virus coinfection does not affect CD4 restoration in HIV-infected patients after initiation of antiretroviral therapy
Yacisin, K; Maida, I; Rios, MJ; Soriano, V; Nunez, M
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 24(7): 935-940.
10.1089/aid.2008.0069
CrossRef
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Effectiveness and safety of didanosine, lamivudine and efavirenz versus zidovudine, lamivudine and efavirenz for the initial treatment of HIV-infected patients from the Spanish VACH cohort
Crespo, M; Ribera, E; Suarez-Lozano, I; Domingo, P; Pedrol, E; Lopez-Aldeguer, J; Munoz, A; Vilades, C; Sanchez, T; Viciana, P; Teira, R; Garcia-Alcalde, ML; Vergara, A; Lozano, F; Galindo, MJ; Cosin, J; Roca, B; Terron, A; Geijo, P; Vidal, F; Garrido, M
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 63(1): 189-196.
10.1093/jac/dkn450
CrossRef
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Long-Term Probability of Detecting Drug-Resistant HIV in Treatment-Naive Patients Initiating Combination Antiretroviral Therapy
Cozzi-Lepri, A; Dunn, D; Pillay, D; Sabin, CA; Fearnhill, E; Geretti, AM; Hill, T; Kaye, S; Bansi, L; Smit, E; Johnson, M; Burns, S; Gilson, R; Cameron, S; Easterbrook, P; Zuckerman, M; Gazzard, B; Walsh, J; Fisher, M; Orkin, C; Ainsworth, J; Leen, C; Gompels, M; Anderson, J; Phillips, AN; Babiker, A; Porter, K; Sadiq, T; Schwenk, A; Mackie, N; Winston, A; Delpech, V
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 50(9): 1275-1285.
10.1086/651684
CrossRef
Revista Chilena De Infectologia
Clinical guide HIV/AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
[Anon]
Revista Chilena De Infectologia, 27(3): 239-276.

Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association
Antiretroviral treatment of adult HIV infection - 2008 recommendations of the International AIDS Society USA panel
Hammer, SM; Eron, JJ; Reiss, P; Schooley, RT; Thompson, MA; Walmsley, S; Cahn, P; Fischl, MA; Gatell, JM; Hirsch, MS; Jacobsen, DM; Montaner, JSG; Richman, DD; Yeni, PG; Volberding, PA
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 300(5): 555-570.

Hiv Clinical Trials
A Meta-Analysis of Six Placebo-Controlled Trials of Thiazolidinedione Therapy for HIV Lipoatrophy
Raboud, JM; Diong, C; Carr, A; Grinspoon, S; Mulligan, K; Sutinen, J; Rozenbaum, W; Cavalcanti, RB; Wand, H; Costagliola, D; Walmsley, S
Hiv Clinical Trials, 11(1): 39-50.
10.1310/hct1101-39
CrossRef
International Journal of Clinical Practice
Tenofovir: what have over 1 million years of patient experience taught us?
Pozniak, A
International Journal of Clinical Practice, 62(8): 1285-1293.
10.1111/j.1742-1241.2008.01817.x
CrossRef
Current Hiv Research
The Changing Face of HIV/AIDS in Treated Patients
Llibre, JM; Falco, V; Tural, C; Negredo, E; Pineda, JA; Munoz, J; Ortega, E; Videla, S; Sirera, G; Martinez, E; Miralles, C; Iribarren, J; Galindo, MJ; Domingo, P; d'Arminio-Monforte, A; Miro, JM; Clotet, B
Current Hiv Research, 7(4): 365-377.

Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Antiretroviral treatment of HIV infection: Swedish recommendations 2007
Josephson, F; Albert, J; Flamholc, L; Gisslen, M; Karlstrom, O; Lindgren, SR; Navter, L; Sandstrom, E; Svedhem-Johansson, V; Svennerholm, B; Sonnerborg, A
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 39(): 486-507.
10.1080/00365540701383154
CrossRef
Hiv Clinical Trials
Comparative efficacy of nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors in combination with efavirenz: Results of a systematic overview
Bartlett, JA; Chen, SS; Quinn, JB
Hiv Clinical Trials, 8(4): 221-226.
10.1310/hct0804-221
CrossRef
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
InforMatrix nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor 'backbones'
Schreij, G; Janknegt, R
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 8(): S37-S47.
10.1517/14656566.8.S1.S37
CrossRef
Drugs of Today
The first once-daily single-tablet regimen for the treatment of HIV-infected patients
Killingley, B; Pozniak, A
Drugs of Today, 43(7): 427-442.
10.1358/dot.2007.43.7.1086178
CrossRef
Medicinal Research Reviews
The Discovery of Antiviral Agents: Ten Different Compounds, Ten Different Stories
De Clercq, E
Medicinal Research Reviews, 28(6): 929-953.
10.1002/med.20128
CrossRef
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Efavirenz: a decade of clinical experience in the treatment of HIV
Maggiolo, F
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 64(5): 910-928.
10.1093/jac/dkp334
CrossRef
Lancet
Efficacy and safety of TMC125 (etravirine) in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients in DUET-2: 24-week results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Lazzarin, A; Campbell, T; Clotet, B; Johnson, M; Katlama, C; Moll, A; Towner, W; Trortier, B; Peeters, M; Vingerhoets, J; de Smedt, G; Baeten, B; Beets, G; Sinha, R; Woodfall, B
Lancet, 370(): 39-48.

Clinical Therapeutics
Cost-efectiveness analysis of emtricitabine/tenofovir versus lamivudine/zidovudine, in combination with efavirenz, in antiretroviral-naive, HIV-1-Infected patients
Sanchez-de la Rosa, R; Herrera, L; Moreno, S
Clinical Therapeutics, 30(2): 372-381.
10.1016/j.clinthera.2008.02.009
CrossRef
Hiv Clinical Trials
Improvements in Subcutaneous Fat, Lipid Profile, and Parameters of Mitochondrial Toxicity in Patients with Peripheral Lipoatrophy When Stavudine is Switched to Tenofovir (LIPOTEST Study)
Ribera, E; Paradineiro, JC; Curran, A; Sauleda, S; Garcia-Arumi, E; Castella, E; Puiggros, C; Crespo, M; Feijoo, M; Diaz, M; del Saz, SV; Planas, M; Sureda, D; Falco, V; Ocana, I; Pahissa, A
Hiv Clinical Trials, 9(6): 407-417.
10.1310/hct0906-407
CrossRef
Pharmacotherapy
Lack of Effect of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate on Pharmacokinetics of Hormonal Contraceptives
Kearney, BP; Mathias, A
Pharmacotherapy, 29(8): 924-929.

Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Treatment of HIV infection: Swedish recommendations 2009
Josephson, F; Albert, J; Flamholc, L; Gisslen, M; Karlstrom, O; Moberg, L; Naver, L; Svedhem, V; Svennerholm, B; Sonnerborg, A
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 41(): 788-807.
10.3109/00365540903214322
CrossRef
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery
The design of drugs for HIV and HCV
De Clercq, E
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 6(): 1001-1018.
10.1038/nrd2424
CrossRef
Hiv Clinical Trials
Impact of switching virologically suppressed, HIV-1-infected patients from twice-daily fixed-dose zidovudine/lamivudine to once-daily fixed-dose tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine
DeJesus, E; Ruane, P; McDonald, C; Garcia, F; Sharma, S; Corales, R; Ravishankar, J; Khanlou, H; Shamblaw, D; Ecker, J; Ebrahimi, R; Flaherty, J
Hiv Clinical Trials, 9(2): 103-114.
10.1310/hct0902-103
CrossRef
Hiv Clinical Trials
Randomization to once-daily stavudine extended release/lamivudine/efavirenz versus a more frequent regimen improves adherence while maintaining viral suppression
Boyle, BA; Jayaweera, D; Witt, MD; Mm, KG; Maa, JF; Seekins, DW
Hiv Clinical Trials, 9(3): 164-176.
10.1310/hct0903-164
CrossRef
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
The role of efavirenz compared with protease inhibitors in the body fat changes associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy
Perez-Molina, JA; Domingo, P; Martinez, E; Moreno, S
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 62(2): 234-245.
10.1093/jac/dkn191
CrossRef
Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Antiretroviral therapy of HIV infection - German-Austrian recommendations
[Anon]
Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, 134(): S4-S15.
10.1055/s-0028-1123965
CrossRef
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Combination of Tenofovir and Emtricitabine plus Efavirenz: In Vitro Modulation of ABC Transporter and Intracellular Drug Accumulation
Bousquet, L; Pruvost, A; Guyot, AC; Farinotti, R; Mabondzo, A
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 53(3): 896-902.
10.1128/AAC.00733-08
CrossRef
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Severe renal dysfunction and risk factors associated with renal impairment in HIV-infected adults in Africa initiating antiretroviral therapy
Reid, A; Stoehr, W; Walker, AS; Williams, IG; Kityo, C; Hughes, P; Kambugu, A; Gilks, CF; Mugyenyi, P; Munderi, P; Hakim, J; Gibb, DM
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 46(8): 1271-1281.
10.1086/533468
CrossRef
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Four-Year Safety with Polyacrylamide Hydrogel to Correct Antiretroviral-Related Facial Lipoatrophy
Negredo, E; Puig, J; Aldea, D; Medina, M; Estany, C; Perez-Alvarez, N; Rodriguez-Fumaz, C; Munoz-Moreno, JA; Higueras, C; Gonzalez-Mestre, V; Clotet, B
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 25(4): 451-455.
10.1089/aid.2008.0230
CrossRef
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Management of morphologic changes associated with antiretroviral use in HIV-infected patients
Wohl, DA; Brown, TT
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 49(): S93-S100.

AIDS
Effect of twice-daily nevirapine on adherence in HIV-1-infected patients: a randomized controlled study
Parienti, JJ; Massari, V; Reliquet, V; Chaillot, F; Le Moal, G; Arvieux, C; Vabret, A; Verdon, R
AIDS, 21(): 2217-2222.

Journal of Infectious Diseases
Greater tenofovir-associated renal function decline with protease inhibitor-based versus nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-based therapy
Goicoechea, M; Liu, S; Best, B; Sun, S; Jain, S; Kemper, C; Witt, M; Diamond, C; Haubrich, R; Louie, S
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 197(1): 102-108.
10.1086/524061
CrossRef
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Long-term assessment of didanosine, lamivudine, and efavirenz in antiretroviral-naive patients: 3-year follow-up
Santos, J; Palacios, R; Lozano, F; Lopez, M; Galvez, MC; de la Torres, J; Lopez-Cortes, LF; Rios, MJ; Rivero, A
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 24(1): 24-26.
10.1089/aid.2007.0142
CrossRef
Antiviral Therapy
Prevalence, genotypic associations and phenotypic characterization of K65R, L74V and other HIV-1 RT resistance mutations in a commercial database
McColl, DJ; Chappey, C; Parkin, NT; Miller, MD
Antiviral Therapy, 13(2): 189-197.

Journal of Infectious Diseases
Durability and outcome of initial antiretroviral treatments received during 2000-2005 by patients in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study
Vo, TTN; Ledergerber, B; Keiser, O; Hirschel, B; Furrer, H; Battegay, M; Cavassini, M; Bernasconi, E; Vernazza, P; Weber, R
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 197(): 1685-1694.
10.1086/588141
CrossRef
AIDS Reader
Renal safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
Sax, PE; Gallant, JE; Klotman, PE
AIDS Reader, 17(2): 90-+.

Hiv Clinical Trials
The safety and efficacy of switching stavuldine to tenofovir DF in combination with lamivudine and efavirenz in HIV-1-infected patients: Three-year follow-up after switching therapy
Madruga, JVR; Cassetti, I; Suleiman, JMAH; Etzel, A; Zhong, L; Holmes, CB; Cheng, AK; Enejosa, J
Hiv Clinical Trials, 8(6): 381-390.
10.1310/hct0806-381
CrossRef
AIDS Reader
Mexico City: A Call for "Universal Action Now"
Laurence, J
AIDS Reader, 18(): 500-502.

Drugs
Antiretroviral therapy - Optimal Sequencing of therapy to avoid resistance
Martinez-Cajas, JL; Wainberg, MA
Drugs, 68(1): 43-72.

Plos One
Deficient Reporting and Interpretation of Non-Inferiority Randomized Clinical Trials in HIV Patients: A Systematic Review
Hernandez, AV; Pasupuleti, V; Deshpande, A; Thota, P; Collins, JA; Vidal, JE
Plos One, 8(5): -.
ARTN e63272
CrossRef
AIDS Reviews
The Role of Rilpivirine in Clinical Practice: Strengths and Weaknesses of the New Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor for HIV Therapy
Imaz, A; Podzamczer, D
AIDS Reviews, 14(4): 268-278.

Molecular Pharmaceutics
Emtricitabine Prodrugs with Improved Anti-HIV Activity and Cellular Uptake
Agarwal, HK; Chhikara, BS; Bhavaraju, S; Mandal, D; Doncel, GF; Parang, K
Molecular Pharmaceutics, 10(2): 467-476.
10.1021/mp300361a
CrossRef
Bmc Infectious Diseases
Immuno-virologic outcomes and immuno-virologic discordance among adults alive and on anti-retroviral therapy at 12 months in Nigeria
Anude, CJ; Eze, E; Onyegbutulem, HC; Charurat, M; Etiebet, MA; Ajayi, S; Dakum, P; Akinwande, O; Beyrer, C; Abimiku, A; Blattner, W
Bmc Infectious Diseases, 13(): -.
ARTN 113
CrossRef
Drugs
HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy: Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy
Guaraldi, G; Stentarelli, C; Zona, S; Santoro, A
Drugs, 73(): 1431-1450.
10.1007/s40265-013-0108-1
CrossRef
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Skeletal muscle mitochondrial DNA content and aerobic metabolism in patients with antiretroviral therapy-associated lipoatrophy
Sutinen, J; Laaksonen, MS; Walker, UA; Setzer, B; Kemppainen, J; Nuutila, P; Yki-Jarvinen, H
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 65(7): 1497-1504.
10.1093/jac/dkq138
CrossRef
Clinical Infectious Diseases
The Clinical and Economic Impact of Genotype Testing at First-line Antiretroviral Therapy Failure for HIV-Infected Patients in South Africa
Levison, JH; Wood, R; Scott, CA; Ciaranello, AL; Martinson, NA; Rusu, C; Losina, E; Freedberg, KA; Walensky, RP
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 56(4): 587-597.
10.1093/cid/cis887
CrossRef
Medicinal Research Reviews
The Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates (ANPs): Antonin Holy's Legacy
De Clercq, E
Medicinal Research Reviews, 33(6): 1278-1303.
10.1002/med.21283
CrossRef
AIDS
Efficacy and safety of TMC278 in antiretroviral-naive HIV-1 patients: week 96 results of a phase IIb randomized trial
Pozniak, AL; Morales-Ramirez, J; Katabira, E; Steyn, D; Lupo, SH; Santoscoy, M; Grinsztejn, B; Ruxrungtham, K; Rimsky, LT; Vanveggel, S; Boven, K; on behalf of the TMC278-C204 study group,
AIDS, 24(1): 55-65.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e32833032ed
PDF (488) | CrossRef
AIDS
Treatment initiation with zidovudine-containing potent antiretroviral therapy impairs CD4 cell count recovery but not clinical efficacy
Huttner, AC; Kaufmann, GR; Battegay, M; Weber, R; Opravil, M
AIDS, 21(8): 939-946.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e3280f00fd6
PDF (163) | CrossRef
AIDS
Metabolic outcomes in a randomized trial of nucleoside, nonnucleoside and protease inhibitor-sparing regimens for initial HIV treatment
Haubrich, RH; Riddler, SA; DiRienzo, AG; Komarow, L; Powderly, WG; Klingman, K; Garren, KW; Butcher, DL; Rooney, JF; Haas, DW; Mellors, JW; Havlir, DV; for the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5142 Study Team,
AIDS, 23(9): 1109-1118.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832b4377
PDF (384) | CrossRef
AIDS
The cost-effectiveness of HLA-B*5701 genetic screening to guide initial antiretroviral therapy for HIV
Schackman, BR; Scott, CA; Walensky, RP; Losina, E; Freedberg, KA; Sax, PE
AIDS, 22(15): 2025-2033.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283103ce6
PDF (304) | CrossRef
AIDS
Efavirenz versus nevirapine-based initial treatment of HIV infection: clinical and virological outcomes in Southern African adults
Nachega, JB; Hislop, M; Dowdy, DW; Gallant, JE; Chaisson, RE; Regensberg, L; Maartens, G
AIDS, 22(16): 2117-2125.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e328310407e
PDF (208) | CrossRef
AIDS
Effects of boosted tipranavir and lopinavir on body composition, insulin sensitivity and adipocytokines in antiretroviral-naive adults
Carr, A; Ritzhaupt, A; Zhang, W; Zajdenverg, R; Workman, C; Gatell, JM; Cahn, P; Chaves, R
AIDS, 22(17): 2313-2321.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e328315a7a5
PDF (189) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate, Emtricitabine, and Efavirenz Compared With Zidovudine/Lamivudine and Efavirenz in Treatment-Naive Patients: 144-Week Analysis
Arribas, JR; Pozniak, AL; Gallant, JE; DeJesus, E; Gazzard, B; Campo, RE; Chen, S; McColl, D; Holmes, CB; Enejosa, J; Toole, JJ; Cheng, AK
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 47(1): 74-78.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e31815acab8
PDF (147) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Gemini: A Noninferiority Study of Saquinavir/Ritonavir Versus Lopinavir/Ritonavir as Initial HIV-1 Therapy in Adults
Walmsley, S; Avihingsanon, A; Slim, J; Ward, DJ; Ruxrungtham, K; Brunetta, J; Bredeek, UF; Jayaweera, D; Guittari, CJ; Larson, P; Schutz, M; Raffi, F
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 50(4): 367-374.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e318198a815
PDF (338) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Simplification of Antiretroviral Therapy to a Single-Tablet Regimen Consisting of Efavirenz, Emtricitabine, and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Versus Unmodified Antiretroviral Therapy in Virologically Suppressed HIV-1-Infected Patients
DeJesus, E; Young, B; Morales-Ramirez, JO; Sloan, L; Ward, DJ; Flaherty, JF; Ebrahimi, R; Maa, J; Reilly, K; Ecker, J; McColl, D; Seekins, D; Farajallah, A; for the AI266073 Study Group,
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 51(2): 163-174.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181a572cf
PDF (227) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Improving Outcomes in State AIDS Drug Assistance Programs
Linas, BP; Losina, E; Rockwell, A; Walensky, RP; Cranston, K; Freedberg, KA
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 51(5): 513-521.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181b16d00
PDF (313) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Development of HIV-1 Drug Resistance Through 144 Weeks in Antiretroviral-Naïve Subjects on Emtricitabine, Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate, and Efavirenz Compared With Lamivudine/Zidovudine and Efavirenz in Study GS-01-934
and the Study 934 Team, ; Margot, NA; Enejosa, J; Cheng, AK; Miller, MD; McColl, DJ
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 52(2): 209-221.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181b05f7c
PDF (244) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Sustained Antiretroviral Effect of Raltegravir After 96 Weeks of Combination Therapy in Treatment-Naive Patients With HIV-1 Infection
for the Protocol 004 Part II Study Team, ; Markowitz, M; Nguyen, B; Gotuzzo, E; Mendo, F; Ratanasuwan, W; Kovacs, C; Prada, G; Morales-Ramirez, JO; Crumpacker, CS; Isaacs, RD; Campbell, H; Strohmaier, KM; Wan, H; Danovich, RM; Teppler, H
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 52(3): 350-356.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181b064b0
PDF (299) | CrossRef
Back to Top | Article Outline
Keywords:

antiretroviral naive; emtricitabine; lamivudine; lipoatrophy; tenofovir; zidovudine

© 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Login

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.