Skip Navigation LinksHome > August 1, 2006 - Volume 42 - Issue 4 > Pharmacogenetic Characteristics of Indinavir, Zidovudine, an...
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes:
doi: 10.1097/01.qai.0000225013.53568.69
Clinical Science

Pharmacogenetic Characteristics of Indinavir, Zidovudine, and Lamivudine Therapy in HIV-Infected Adults: A Pilot Study

Anderson, Peter L. PharmD*; Lamba, Jatinder PhD†; Aquilante, Christina L. PharmD*; Schuetz, Erin PhD†; Fletcher, Courtney V. PharmD*

Free Access
Article Outline
Collapse Box

Author Information

From the *University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO; and †St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.

Received for publication November 1, 2005; accepted April 13, 2006.

Supported by NIH grants RO1 AI33835 12 and P30 AI054907 (to C.V.F.), U01GM61374 Pharmacogenetics Research Network and Database (http://pharmgkb.org) (to E.S.), and MO1 RR00400; the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (to P.L.A.); and the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities (to E.S.).

Reprints: Courtney V. Fletcher, PharmD, UCDHSC School of Pharmacy, Box C238, 4200 East 9th Ave, Denver, CO 80262 (e-mail: courtney.fletcher@uchsc.edu).

Collapse Box

Abstract

Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate relationships among indinavir, lamivudine-triphosphate, and zidovudine-triphosphate pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics with polymorphisms in CYP3A5, MDR1, MRP2, MRP4, BCRP, and UGT1A1 genes.

Study Design: Retrospective pilot investigation among 33 subjects who participated in a randomized pharmacological study of indinavir, lamivudine, and zidovudine. Subjects were defined as genetic variant carriers or not. Relationships were investigated with multivariable regression. Indinavir clearance was adjusted for African American race; triphosphates for sex; and HIV-response for study arm, drug exposure, and baseline HIV-RNA.

Results: Genetically determined CYP3A5 expressors had 44% faster indinavir oral clearance versus nonexpressors (P = 0.002). MRP2-24C/T variant carriers had 24% faster indinavir oral clearance (P = 0.05). Lamivudine-triphosphate concentrations were elevated 20% in MRP4 T4131G variant carriers (P = 0.004). A trend for elevated zidovudine-triphosphates was observed in MRP4 G3724A variant carriers (P = 0.06). The log10 changes in HIV-RNA from baseline to week 52 were -3.7 for MDR1 2677 TT, -3.2 for GT, and -2.2 for GG (P < 0.05). Bilirubin increases were 2-fold higher in UGT1A1 [TA]7/[TA]7 genotypes. No relationships were identified with BCRP.

Discussion: Novel relationships were identified among genetic variants in drug transporters and indinavir, lamivudine-triphosphate, and zidovudine-triphosphate concentrations. CYP3A5 expression was associated with faster indinavir oral clearance. These pilot data provide a scientific basis for more rational utilization of antiretroviral drugs.

Up to 50% of patients experience adverse drug effects or virologic failure during combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection.1,2 Multiple factors contribute to how patients respond to therapy including viral drug susceptibility, patient adherence, and biological/genetic differences among patients in their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics.3-5

In terms of pharmacokinetic variability, the coefficients of variation for protease inhibitor plasma area under the concentration time curves are generally 50% to 100% among adult HIV-infected patients after the same observed oral dose.6,7 The clinical pharmacology of nucleoside analog-reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) is governed by their intracellular triphosphate anabolites. Coefficients of variation for the intracellular concentrations of active NRTI-triphosphates in patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are generally ≥50%.8,9 The expression and/or function of many enzymes contribute to the pharmacokinetic profile of antiretroviral drugs. These include the major cytochrome P450 and conjugation enzymes such as CYP3A and UDP glycosyltransferase (UGT), and active drug transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP). Additionally, many nuclear receptor systems such as pregnane X receptor regulate the expression of these important drug clearance enzymes.10

The pharmacodynamic profile of antiretroviral drugs is influenced by plasma drug concentrations (pharmacokinetics) and therefore the expression/function of the same enzymes as listed above. However, additional considerations are important. For example, P-gp expression on apical surfaces of the gut and proximal renal tubules would influence the blood concentrations and thereby the pharmacodynamics of substrate drugs.11 Moreover, P-gp expression on gonad-, placenta-, and brain-blood barriers and on lymphocytes may influence pharmacodynamics when the antiretroviral drug's effect-site resides in these protected tissues, even if plasma concentrations were held constant. Lastly, the expression/function of drug receptors and/or the substrates with which the drug competes would also be expected to influence the variability in clinical drug response. Genetic differences among people are one source of variability governing the expression/function of the enzymes responsible for antiretroviral drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

In the present study, we set out to determine if variation in genes of pharmacological interest were associated with the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of indinavir (IDV), zidovudine (ZDV), and lamivudine (3TC). Our objective was to evaluate relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes with the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of these drugs in HIV-infected adult subjects who had participated in an intensive pharmacological study. The hypotheses were that SNPs in CYP3A5, MDR1, and MRP2 were associated with IDV oral clearance; SNPs in MRP4 and BCRP were associated with ZDV-triphosphate and 3TC-triphosphate concentrations; a UGT1A1 SNP was associated with IDV-induced bilirubin increases; and all SNPs besides that in UGT1A1 were associated with measures of antiviral response. Table 1 lists the genes and SNPs that were investigated and the rationale for inclusion in this study.12-28

Table 1
Table 1
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline

METHODS

The study was a retrospective, pilot, association study. The subjects had participated in a randomized trial of concentration controlled versus standard dosing of IDV, 3TC, and ZDV. Subjects were antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected adults with HIV-RNA in plasma above 5000 copies/mL and without active opportunistic infections. Subjects were randomized to standard dosing (IDV 800 mg every 8 hours plus twice daily 3TC 150 mg and ZDV 300 mg) or concentration controlled dosing, where doses were adjusted to attain plasma targets based on the recipient's pharmacokinetic parameters. The study details and primary results have been published elsewhere.29

All study participants underwent a full 8-hour pharmacokinetic profile at week 2, where observed doses of all study drugs were given, and serial blood samples were obtained at predose, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 hours postdose. Subjects fasted before and for 2 hours after dosing. Beginning at week 4 and continuing until week 24, a single blood sample was obtained at each monthly visit and the time postdose was recorded. Subjects could continue the study in the arm to which they were randomized for a total of 80 weeks. Intensive pharmacokinetic studies as described above were performed also at weeks 28 and 56, and single samples were obtained at 4-week intervals throughout. Intracellular 3TC-triphosphate and ZDV-triphosphate concentrations were determined in PBMCs that were harvested from 15 mL of blood taken 2 hours postdose at each intensive study (weeks 2, 28, and 56) and also at bimonthly visits (weeks 8, 16, 24, 36, 44, 52, 64, 72, and 80). A combined cartridge and competitive enzyme immunoassay was used to quantify ZDV-triphosphate, whereas a similar cartridge method with a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry assay was used to quantify 3TC-triphosphate, as previously described.8 IDV plasma concentrations were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography.30

A complete blood count with differential, a routine blood chemistry panel, HIV-RNA (Roche Amplicor Ultrasensitive Assay; Roche Diagnostic Systems, Branchburg, NJ), and CD4 lymphocyte counts were determined at regular intervals.

After the study was completed, data were de-identified and institutional review board approval was obtained to retrospectively investigate selected genetic polymorphisms associated with the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of the study drugs. Gene selection (ie, CYP3A5, MDR1, MRP2, MRP4, BCRP, and UGT1A1) was based on literature supporting a potential connection with IDV, 3TC-, or ZDV-triphosphate disposition in man (Table 1).12,16,20,23,25 SNP selection was based on a variant allele frequency of at least 10%, and potential for change in protein function and/or expression was based on literature or, in the case of MRP4, exonic splicing enhancer sequence analysis.13,17,18,21,26,28 These considerations are described in Table 1.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Complete Genotyping Conditions Are Available in the Appendix

Briefly, genomic DNA was isolated from stored PBMCs using a commercially available kit (QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, Qiagen Inc, Valencia, CA), according to the manufacturer's protocol. MRP2, BCRP, and UGT1A1 genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR; MyCycler, Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc, Hercules, CA) followed by pyrosequencing analysis. Genotyping for CYP3A5*3 and *6 was performed as described in a previous publication.13 Genotyping for CYP3A5*7, MDR1 (G2677T and C3435T), and MRP4 (C1612T, G3463A, G3724A and T4131G) was performed by PCR amplification and direct automated sequencing. Sequences were assembled using the Phred-Phrap-Consed package (University of Washington, Seattle; http://droog.mbt.washington.edu/PolyPhred.html) that automatically detects the presence of heterozygous single nucleotide substitutions by fluorescence-based sequencing of PCR products.31,32 Genotype data were subjected to internal and external quality assurance analyses. Approximately 15% of samples were regenotyped with the same assay, and more than 15% of the samples were genotyped by both direct sequencing and pyrosequencing. In all cases, there was 100% genotype concordance within and between the methods.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Data Analysis

Weight-adjusted IDV oral clearance [CL/F (liter per hour per kilogram)] was used in the analyses to account for differences in the subject's body size and to remove the potential effects of dose changes in the concentration-controlled arm. The average CL/F was calculated from all available pharmacokinetic studies for each subject. The median 3TC-triphosphate and ZDV-triphosphate concentration was calculated for each subject. Triphosphate concentrations below the limit of quantification (due to limited cell extract and/or low values) were removed from the data set and reanalyzed using a midpoint value between the assay detection limit and 0.8

Pharmacokinetic data were log-transformed (log base 2) before data analyses, unless otherwise noted. Subjects with at least one CYP3A5 *1 allele (wild type) were defined as CYP3A5 expressors, whereas others were CYP3A5 nonexpressors.14 Given the small subject numbers and the pilot nature of the study, genotypes were analyzed as wild type versus variant carriers, where variant carriers were heterozygotes and variant homozygotes. If 3 or more subjects were variant homozygotes, these subjects were also compared with wild-type homozygotes. The following covariates were coded 0 and 1 in the data set: CYP3A5 expressors versus nonexpressors; African American versus non-African American race; women versus men; and "variant-carrier" versus "wild type." Multivariable linear regression and Student t tests with equal variances were used to evaluate relationships. No corrections were made for multiple statistical comparisons; all comparisons were planned a priori (see potential association with study drug in Table 1). Fisher exact tests were used for differences in proportions. Alpha levels were set at 0.05. SPSS software, version 12, was used (Apache Software, Chicago, IL). Data are reported as median (interquartile range), unless noted otherwise.

Back to Top | Article Outline

RESULTS

Thirty-three subjects were evaluated. Baseline demographic, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic data are presented in Table 2A. Genotype data for all subjects are shown in Table 2B. All genotypes were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and the allele frequencies were consistent with those reported in the literature. African Americans had significantly different rates of "variant-carrier" status for several genotypes compared with non-African Americans (Table 2B). No subject carried the CYP3A5*7 allele.

Table 2A
Table 2A
Image Tools
Table 2B
Table 2B
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline
Indinavir Pharmacokinetic Disposition
African American Race

African Americans had 56% faster median IDV CL/F compared with non-African Americans, 1.06 (0.72 to 1.20) versus 0.68 (0.53 to 0.91) L/h/kg; P = 0.02. Therefore, given that African Americans also had significantly different variant carrier statuses (Table 2B), the genetic analyses that follow were adjusted for African American race.

Back to Top | Article Outline
CYP3A5

Eleven subjects, including 7 of 7 African Americans, were CYP3A5 expressors. One subject had *1/*3 and *1/*6; however, no haplotype analysis was done. The subject was placed in the group with the most similar CL/F values (expressor), and in addition, the data were reanalyzed with the subject removed. The median IDV CL/F was 44% faster in CYP3A5 expressors versus nonexpressors; 0.92 (0.72 to 1.20) versus 0.64 (0.50 to 0.87) L/h/kg; P = 0.002; Figure 1. The IDV CL/F was 39% faster in expressors than nonexpressors after controlling for African American race (P = 0.04). Notably, African American race was not a significant variable in this analysis (P = 0.8; Fig. 1). Similarly, CYP3A5 expressor status was also independently associated with IDV CL/F after adjusting for MDR1 2677 GG versus TT or with MRP2 C-24T variant carrier status (described below). Finally, only CYP3A5 expressor status was associated with IDV CL/F in a backward-elimination multiple regression model with all these variables included (P = 0.001).

Figure 1
Figure 1
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline
MDR1

The median IDV CL/F was 39% faster in subjects with 2677 GG versus TT, 0.78 (0.65 to 1.00) versus 0.56 (0.50 to 0.59) L/h/kg; P = 0.02, but the IDV CL/F in subjects with 2677 GT was not statistically different than either of these 2 groups, 0.81 (0.50 to 0.92) L/h/kg. Subjects with 3435 CC versus TT genotypes had marginally faster IDV CL/F; P = 0.053. However, when 2677 GG versus TT status and African American race were simultaneously analyzed, neither was independently associated with IDV CL/F (P = 0.1 and P = 0.09, respectively).

Back to Top | Article Outline
MRP2

Neither of the 2 MRP2 variant carrier statuses was associated with IDV CL/F in univariate models (P > 0.13). When each MRP2 variant carrier status was analyzed simultaneously with African American race, C-24T variant carriers had 24% faster IDV CL/F relative to C-24T wild type (P = 0.05).

Back to Top | Article Outline
Zidovudine-Triphosphate and Lamivudine-Triphosphate Concentrations
Sex and African American Race

The median ZDV-triphosphate concentration was 230% higher in women compared with men (P = 0.003), and the median 3TC-triphosphate concentration was 160% higher in women compared with men (P = 0.002), as was reported previously.8 Three of 4 women were of African descent, which suggested possible confounding based on race. However, only sex was associated with ZDV-triphosphate and 3TC-triphosphate in a regression model with sex, study arm, and African American race analyzed together (P < 0.002). Therefore, it was concluded that sex was the most important potential confounder in the genotype analyses that follow below.

Back to Top | Article Outline
MRP4

The variant carrier status at MRP4 T4131G was associated with elevated median 3TC-triphosphate concentrations; 7396 (6515 to 8968) for wild type (TT) versus 8470 (7927 to 9386) for heterozygotes and 8882 (7315 to 9487) fmol/million cells for homozygous variants. In as much as concentrations in heterozygotes and homozygous variants were nearly identical, these 2 groups were combined. After adjusting for sex, MRP4 T4131G variant carriers had 20% higher 3TC-triphosphate concentrations than wild type (P = 0.004); Figure 2. The same trends were found with MRP4 T4131G versus ZDV-triphosphate, but the relationships were not statistically significant (P = 0.15). These relationships were consistent when triphosphate medians were recalculated with values between the assay detection limit and 0 used in place of BLQ.

Figure 2
Figure 2
Image Tools

The median ZDV-triphosphate concentration was 49% higher in MRP4 G3724A variant carriers versus wild type (GG); 64 (59 to 188) versus 43 (34 to 62) fmol/million cells (P = 0.03). One of the 3 variant carriers was female, and the relationship remained marginally significant when adjusted for sex (58% higher with variant; P = 0.06). The median 3TC-triphosphate concentrations were also higher in the G3724A variant carriers versus wild type (37%), but the relationship was not statistically significant (P = 0.25).

Back to Top | Article Outline
BCRP

None of the BCRP variants were associated with ZDV-triphosphate or 3TC-triphosphate concentrations in univariate analyses, or when the variants were analyzed simultaneously with sex.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Pharmacodynamics
MDR1

In an analysis of the magnitude of HIV-RNA reduction from baseline to the primary study endpoint (week 52, or study exit), subjects with 2677 TT and/or 2677 GT had significantly greater reductions in HIV-RNA compared with subjects who had 2677 GG; -3.7, -3.3, and -2.2 log10, respectively, as shown in Figure 3. The relationship was independent of baseline HIV-RNA, study arm, and concentrations of IDV, ZDV-, and 3TC-triphosphate. In a backward elimination multivariable model that included all of these variables, only G2677T variant carrier status and baseline HIV-RNA were retained in the final model (P < 0.006). Relationships were not found among any other study SNPs and HIV-RNA and CD4 responses.

Figure 3
Figure 3
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline
Total Bilirubin Responses

Subjects with UGT1A1 [TA]7/[TA]7 had significantly greater elevations in total bilirubin concentrations during the study compared with subjects who had either [TA]6/[TA]7 or [TA]6/[TA]6; P < 0.005. The median increases were 2.5 mg/dL (2.0 to 3.2) for subjects with [TA]7/[TA]7 compared with 1.4 mg/dL (1.1 to 1.8) and 1.1 mg/dL (0.9 to 1.5) for subjects with [TA]6/[TA]7 and [TA]6/[TA]6, respectively. No other pharmacogenetic relationships were observed with bilirubin increases.

Back to Top | Article Outline

DISCUSSION

Several significant relationships were identified between the selected genetic polymorphisms and the pharmacological characteristics of IDV, 3TC, and ZDV in this investigation among HIV-infected persons. Genetically determined CYP3A5 expression was associated with approximately 40% faster IDV CL/F after adjusting for African American race and other covariates. MRP2 C-24T variant carriers had 24% faster IDV CL/F after adjusting for African American race. With regard to ZDV-triphosphate and 3TC-triphosphate concentrations, MRP4 T4131G variant carriers had higher 3TC-triphosphate concentrations after adjusting for sex. MRP4 G3724A variant carriers had 58% higher ZDV-triphosphate concentrations after adjusting for sex, although there were only 3 variant carriers in this study. The magnitude of HIV-RNA decrease from baseline to the week 52 primary study endpoint was associated with MDR1 G2677T and baseline HIV-RNA. The HIV-RNA change was 1.5 log10 and 1.0 log10 greater in subjects with MDR1 2677 TT and GT genotypes compared with GG, respectively. The relationship was independent of study arm and drug exposures. The change in bilirubin levels during IDV-containing therapy was about 2-fold higher in subjects with UGT1A1 [TA]7/[TA]7 compared with [TA]6/[TA]7 or [TA]6/[TA]6. No relationships were identified between selected genetic variants in BCRP and the pharmacological parameters in this study.

This was a small, retrospective, hypothesis-generating pilot investigation, and as such, there are obvious limitations. First, the small number of variant carriers for some SNPs and the overall small sample size limited the statistical power and precluded a thorough evaluation of potential confounders. However, we did adjust pharmacogenetic relationships for known confounders (eg, sex for triphosphates, African American race for IDV CL/F, and study arm/drug exposures/baseline HIV-RNA for the change in HIV-RNA). Second, although statistical comparisons were reported only on hypothesized relationships (see second column in Table 1), there were multiple comparisons without statistical correction. We explored other unplanned relationships and found that 3TC-triphosphate concentrations were 14% higher in MDR1 G2677T variant carriers versus wild type after controlling for sex (P = 0.05) and that MRP4 variant at G3724A was associated with a 60% slower IDV CL/F than wild type after controlling for African American race (P = 0.04). A final limitation was that many additional genes and/or additional SNPs in the genes investigated in this study may be important in the pharmacology of these drugs, but were not quantified. It is necessary to point out that this study also had significant strengths in that the design was rigorous and controlled, and extensive pharmacological data were collected in each subject. The IDV oral clearances were averaged from up to 3 separate intensive pharmacokinetics studies in each subject and were adjusted for body weight. Similarly, an average of 9 triphosphate concentrations was determined in each subject. Thus, the findings in this pilot investigation warrant additional study.

Few investigations have rigorously evaluated CYP3A5 pharmacogenetics of antiretroviral drugs in patients, although most protease inhibitors are avid CYP3A substrates and pharmacokinetic variability is an important clinical issue. CYP3A5 expressor status was not associated with the plasma concentrations of nevirapine, efavirenz, and nelfinavir, all of which undergo significant biotransformation from other metabolic enzymes such as CYP2C19 and CYP2B6.33-35 In contrast, a recent study described about 2-fold faster saquinavir oral clearance in 6 genetically determined CYP3A5 expressors versus 14 nonexpressors.36 In the present study, IDV CL/F was more than 40% faster in 11 subjects with genetically determined CYP3A5 expression versus 22 CYP3A5 nonexpressors. Saquinavir, IDV, and all other protease inhibitors except nelfinavir are predominantly metabolized by CYP3A, so these later findings are biologically consistent.12,37-39 African American race was also associated with IDV CL/F in the present study, but when CYP3A5 expression and African American race were analyzed together, only CYP3A5 remained significant. This suggests that the African American race effect was mediated by racial differences in CYP3A5 expression. It is clinically important to identify sources of protease inhibitor pharmacokinetic variability. The current clinical approach to deal with this variability is to use ritonavir boosting. Although this strategy is associated with clinical success in a large number of patients, this one-size-fits-all approach to the problem ignores the underlying causes of pharmacokinetic variability. Such gaps in knowledge interfere with the development of any other rational strategies to improve the clinical use of protease inhibitors.

The influence of genetic variability in the MDR-1 gene on the clinical pharmacological characteristics of P-gp substrates, including antiretroviral drugs, in patients is contradictory. For example, in terms of the C3435T polymorphism, some studies have described statistically significantly lower nelfinavir concentrations in subjects with CC versus CT and/or TT, whereas other studies have described statistically significantly higher nelfinavir concentrations according to the same genotypes.35,40 In the present study, CC and GG genotypes at C3435T and G2677T, respectively, were associated with faster IDV CL/F (ie, lower IDV concentrations). However, when these genotypes were adjusted for CYP3A5 status, or African American race, the relationships were no longer significant. Several studies have also evaluated MDR1 genotypes according to responses to antiretroviral drug therapy. There has been better consistency across these studies in that subjects with CC and/or GG genotypes at C3435T and G2677T experienced poorer antiretroviral drug responses compared with the counterpart genotypes.33,35,40,41 Yet some studies have not detected relationships.42,43 The data in this study are consistent with these former studies in that subjects with MDR1 2677 GG experienced significantly poorer decreases in HIV-RNA from baseline to the primary study endpoint, independent of baseline HIV-RNA, study arm, and drug exposures. Further study of the impact of P-gp on the clinical pharmacological characteristics of protease inhibitors is needed.

There have been relatively few antiretroviral drug pharmacogenetic studies involving other transporters such as MRP2, MRP4, and BCRP. IDV is a substrate of MRP2, which lines the bile cannicular cells and the gut epithelia, with the potential consequence of limiting drug absorption and speeding drug elimination.19,20 Genetic variability in MRP2 has been identified, but the influence of common SNPs (frequencies >10%) on protein function is not clear.21 One study of 34 HIV-infected patients treated with other HIV protease inhibitors (saquinavir and lopinavir/ritonavir) described 3-fold higher saquinavir concentrations in patients with the MRP2 G1249A GG genotype compared with variant carriers (P = 0.009).22 In the present study, MRP2 G1249A variant carrier status was not related with the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of IDV, whereas variant carrier status at MRP2 C-24T was associated with faster IDV CL/F after adjusting for African American race.

MRP4 and BCRP were shown to efflux NRTI-monophosphates out of cells in vitro, which would presumably affect the downstream NRTI-triphosphate concentration and therefore potential NRTI activity. For example, intracellular ZDV-phosphate concentrations (mono-, di-, tri-) were dependent on the cellular expression of MRP4,23,24 and the pharmacological activity of ZDV and 3TC was dependent on the expression of BCRP.25 Two relatively common functional polymorphisms have been identified in the BCRP gene, one a G-to-A change at nucleotide 34 in exon 2 (Val to Met at codon 12) and a C-to-A change at nucleotide 421 in exon 5 (Glu to Lys at codon 141).26 However, we did not observe relationships between these polymorphisms and ZDV-triphosphate or 3TC-triphosphate concentrations.

No functional polymorphisms have yet been identified in the MRP4 gene, to our knowledge. In the present study, exonic splicing enhancer analyses were conducted to predict SNPs that had relatively high probability of altered mRNA splicing and potentially altered MRP4 protein expression because nonfunctional MRP4 protein has been described in the literature.44 A significant relationship was identified between carriers of the MRP4 T4131G variant and elevated 3TC-triphosphate concentrations, which suggests the T4131G variant may be associated with reduced expression/function (Fig. 2). MRP4 G3724A variant carriers had elevated ZDV-triphosphate concentrations, and slower IDV CL/F in unplanned analyses, which both would suggest reduced MRP4 expression/function with the variant. It should be emphasized that these are novel findings from a small pilot investigation. Future mechanistic studies are needed to verify the functional significance of these MRP2 and MRP4 SNPs.

IDV (and atazanavir) causes the relatively benign adverse effect of raising unconjugated and total bilirubin concentrations via inhibition of UGT1A1. In this study, subjects who carried 2 [TA]7 alleles experienced about twice the bilirubin elevation as other subjects, which is consistent with previous studies in IDV-triphosphate and atazanavir-treated subjects.27,45 Although these data may seem inconsequential clinically because of the benign nature of bilirubin increases, the findings illustrate an important point: Genetic variability in drug targets influences drug response. Analogies can be drawn with variability in genes that encode drug targets for HIV replication (eg, reverse transcriptase or protease) where genetic mutations are well known to confer reduced susceptibility to drugs. Other analogies can be drawn with drug receptors that might underlie serious adverse effects, such as protease inhibitor-induced hyperlipidemia or mitochondrial toxicity.46 Therefore, future pharmacogenetic studies of antiretroviral drug therapy should include the analysis of drug targets, as well as drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters.

In conclusion, this study provides hypotheses and scientific direction for future investigations to elucidate the genetic determinants of antiretroviral drug pharmacokinetics and response. These investigations should incorporate a prospective design, sufficient sample sizes, and intensive pharmacological methods. Ultimately, knowledge from these studies will enable the most informed and rational use of antiretroviral medications.

Back to Top | Article Outline

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors are grateful to Drs Richard Brundage, Thomas Kakuda, Linda Page, Edward Acosta, Timothy Schacker, Keith Henry, and Frank Rhame for the design and implementation of the parent study, and Lane Bushman, Sagar Kawle, and Dennis Weller for their analytical efforts.

Back to Top | Article Outline

APPENDIX

For the pyrosequencing method, the standard PCR reaction mixture consisted of 12.5 μL HotStarTaq Master Mix (Qiagen Inc, Valencia, CA), 10 pmol of each primer (Operon Biotechnologies, Inc, Huntsville, AL), 835 μL H2O, and 50 to 100 ng of genomic DNA. The standard PCR cycling conditions in preparation for genotyping were initial denaturation at 95°C for 15 minutes, 40 cycles of denaturation at 95°C for 30 seconds, annealing for 30 seconds (annealing temperature varied for each polymorphism studied), and extension at 72°C for 1 minute, followed by a final extension step at 72°C for 7 minutes. After PCR, genotypes were determined by pyrosequencing analysis (PSQ 96 MA; Biotage AB, Uppsala, Sweden) according to the manufacturer's protocol. Primers and annealing temperatures used for the MRP2 BCRP, and UGT1A1 PCR and genotyping assays are shown in the Appendix Table. Genotypes were determined using PSQ 96MA SNP software version 2.0 (Biotage AB), which provides automated genotype determinations.

APPENDIX TABLE. PCR ...
APPENDIX TABLE. PCR ...
Image Tools

Genotyping for CYP3A5*7, MDRI (G2677T and C3435T), and MRP4 (C1612T, G3463A, G3724A and T4131G) was performed by amplifying the genomic DNA using primers described in the Appendix Table. After PCR amplification, the unincorporated nucleotides and primers were removed by incubation with Shrimp Alkaline Phosphatase and Exonuclease I (USB, Cleveland, OH) for 30 min at 37°C followed by enzyme inactivation at 80°C for 15 minutes before sequencing. Sequencing was carried out on ABI Prism 3700 Automated Sequencer (PE Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) using the PCR primers, except for CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A5*6 for which internal sequencing primers were used. Sequences were assembled using the Phred-Phrap-Consed package (University of Washington, Seattle; http://droog.mbt.washington.edu/PolyPhred.html) that automatically detects the presence of heterozygous single nucleotide substitutions by fluorescence-based sequencing of PCR products.

Back to Top | Article Outline

REFERENCES

1. Carr A, Cooper DA. Adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy. Lancet. 2000;356(9239):1423-1430.

2. Deeks SG. Determinants of virological response to antiretroviral therapy: implications for long-term strategies. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30(suppl 2):S177-S184.

3. Paterson DL, Swindells S, Mohr J, et al. Adherence to protease inhibitor therapy and outcomes in patients with HIV infection. Ann Intern Med. 2000;133(1):21-30.

4. Anderson PL. Pharmacologic perspectives for once-daily antiretroviral therapy. Ann Pharmacother. 2004;38(11):1924-1934.

5. Hirsch MS, Brun-Vezinet F, Clotet B, et al. Antiretroviral drug resistance testing in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1: 2003 recommendations of an International AIDS Society-USA Panel. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37(1):113-128.

6. Flexner C. Dual protease inhibitor therapy in HIV-infected patients: pharmacologic rationale and clinical benefits. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2000;40:649-674.

7. Anderson PL, Fletcher CV. Clinical pharmacologic considerations for HIV-1 protease inhibitors. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2001;3(4):381-387.

8. Anderson PL, Kakuda TN, Kawle S, et al. Antiviral dynamics and sex differences of zidovudine and lamivudine triphosphate concentrations in HIV-infected individuals. AIDS. 2003;17(15):2159-2168.

9. Becher F, Landman R, Mboup S, et al. Monitoring of didanosine and stavudine intracellular triphosphorylated anabolite concentrations in HIV-infected patients. AIDS. 2004;18:181-187.

10. Tirona RG, Kim RB. Nuclear receptors and drug disposition gene regulation. J Pharm Sci. 2005;94(6):1169-1186.

11. Ambudkar SV, Dey S, Hrycyna CA, et al. Biochemical, cellular, and pharmacological aspects of the multidrug transporter. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1999;39:361-398.

12. Koudriakova T, Iatsimirskaia E, Utkin I, et al. Metabolism of the human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors indinavir and ritonavir by human intestinal microsomes and expressed cytochrome P4503A4/3A5: mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P4503A by ritonavir. Drug Metab Dispos. 1998;26(6):552-561.

13. Kuehl P, Zhang J, Lin Y, et al. Sequence diversity in CYP3A promoters and characterization of the genetic basis of polymorphic CYP3A5 expression. Nat Genet. 2001;27(4):383-391.

14. Lamba JK, Lin YS, Schuetz EG, et al. Genetic contribution to variable human CYP3A-mediated metabolism. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2002;54(10):1271-1294.

15. Hoggard PG, Back DJ. Intracellular pharmacology of nucleoside analogues and protease inhibitors: role of transporter molecules. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2002;15(1):3-8.

16. Kim RB, Fromm MF, Wandel C, et al. The drug transporter P-glycoprotein limits oral absorption and brain entry of HIV-1 protease inhibitors. J Clin Invest. 1998;101(2):289-294.

17. Hoffmeyer S, Burk O, von Richter O, et al. Functional polymorphisms of the human multidrug-resistance gene: multiple sequence variations and correlation of one allele with P-glycoprotein expression and activity in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97(7):3473-3478.

18. Kim RB, Leake BF, Choo EF, et al. Identification of functionally variant MDR1 alleles among European Americans and African Americans. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2001;70(2):189-199.

19. Chan LM, Lowes S, Hirst BH. The ABCs of drug transport in intestine and liver: efflux proteins limiting drug absorption and bioavailability. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2004;21(1):25-51.

20. Huisman MT, Smit JW, Crommentuyn KM, et al. Multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) transports HIV protease inhibitors, and transport can be enhanced by other drugs. AIDS. 2002;16(17):2295-2301.

21. Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in multidrug resistance associated protein 2 (MRP2/ABCC2): its impact on drug disposition. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2002;54(10):1311-1331.

22. Kruse G, Staszewski S, Cascorbi I, et al. Mutations in the drug transporter genes MDR1 and MRP2 and pharmacokinetics in patients treated with saquinavir/lopinavir. Paper presented at: 4th International Workshop on Clinical Pharmacology of HIV Therapy; March 27-29, 2003; Cannes, France. Abstract 7.

23. Schuetz JD, Connelly MC, Sun D, et al. MRP4: a previously unidentified factor in resistance to nucleoside-based antiviral drugs. Nat Med. 1999;5(9):1048-1051.

24. Rodman JH, Robbins B, Forbes E, et al. Cellular efflux is a determinant of the accumulation and kinetics of intracellular zidovudine triphosphate. Paper presented at: 11th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; February 8-11, 2004; San Francisco, CA. Abstract 598.

25. Wang X, Furukawa T, Nitanda T, et al. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) induces cellular resistance to HIV-1 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Mol Pharmacol. 2003;63(1):65-72.

26. Mizuarai S, Aozasa N, Kotani H. Single nucleotide polymorphisms result in impaired membrane localization and reduced atpase activity in multidrug transporter ABCG2. Int J Cancer. 2004;109(2):238-246.

27. Zucker SD, Qin X, Rouster SD, et al. Mechanism of indinavir-induced hyperbilirubinemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98(22):12671-12676.

28. Raijmakers MT, Jansen PL, Steegers EA, et al. Association of human liver bilirubin UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity with a polymorphism in the promoter region of the UGT1A1 gene. J Hepatol. 2000;33(3):348-351.

29. Fletcher CV, Anderson PL, Kakuda TN, et al. Concentration-controlled compared with conventional antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection. AIDS. 2002;16(4):551-560.

30. Kakuda TN, Page LM, Anderson PL, et al. Pharmacological basis for concentration-controlled therapy with zidovudine, lamivudine, and indinavir. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001;45(1):236-242.

31. Rieder MJ, Taylor SL, Tobe VO, et al. Automating the identification of DNA variations using quality-based fluorescence re-sequencing: analysis of the human mitochondrial genome. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26(4):967-973.

32. Nickerson DA, Tobe VO, Taylor SL. PolyPhred: automating the detection and genotyping of single nucleotide substitutions using fluorescence-based resequencing. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997;25(14):2745-2751.

33. Haas DW, Smeaton L, Shafer R, et al. Pharmacogenetics of long-term response to efavirenz- and nelfinavir-containing regimens: NWCS213, an analysis of ACTG 384. Paper presented at: 12th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; February 22-25, 2005; Boston, MA. Abstract 81.

34. van der Ende M, Sahtoe C, Dieleman J, et al. Prevalence of single nucleotide polymorphisms in MDR-1 and CYP3A genes within a heterogenous HIV-1-infected population and effect on nevirapine plasma levels. Paper presented at: 11th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; February 8-11, 2004; San Francisco, CA. Abstract 605.

35. Fellay J, Marzolini C, Meaden ER, et al. Response to antiretroviral treatment in HIV-1-infected individuals with allelic variants of the multidrug resistance transporter 1: a pharmacogenetics study. Lancet. 2002;359(9300):30-36.

36. Mouly SJ, Matheny C, Paine MF, et al. Variation in oral clearance of saquinavir is predicted by CYP3A5*1 genotype but not by enterocyte content of cytochrome P450 3A5. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005;78(6):605-618.

37. Kumar GN, Dykstra J, Roberts EM, et al. Potent inhibition of the cytochrome P-450 3A-mediated human liver microsomal metabolism of a novel HIV protease inhibitor by ritonavir: a positive drug-drug interaction. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999;27(8):902-908.

38. Treluyer JM, Bowers G, Cazali N, et al. Oxidative metabolism of amprenavir in the human liver. Effect of the CYP3A maturation. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003;31(3):275-281.

39. Frohlich M, Hoffmann MM, Burhenne J, et al. Association of the CYP3A5 A6986G (CYP3A5*3) polymorphism with saquinavir pharmacokinetics. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2004;58(4):443-444.

40. Saitoh A, Singh KK, Powell CA, et al. An MDR1-3435 variant is associated with higher plasma nelfinavir levels and more rapid virologic response in HIV-1 infected children. AIDS. 2005;19(4):371-380.

41. Brumme ZL, Dong WW, Chan KJ, et al. Influence of polymorphisms within the CX3CR1 and MDR-1 genes on initial antiretroviral therapy response. AIDS. 2003;17(2):201-208.

42. Winzer R, Langmann P, Zilly M, et al. No influence of the P-glycoprotein polymorphisms MDR1 G2677T/A and C3435T on the virological and immunological response in treatment naive HIV-positive patients. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2005;4(1):3.

43. Haas DW, Wu H, Li H, et al. MDR1 gene polymorphisms and phase 1 viral decay during HIV-1 infection: an adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003;34(3):295-298.

44. Lamba JK, Adachi M, Sun D, et al. Nonsense mediated decay downregulates conserved alternatively spliced ABCC4 transcripts bearing nonsense codons. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12(2):99-109.

45. O'Mara E, Genetic factors in protease inhibitor hyperbilirubinemia. Paper presented at: 43rd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Chicago); 2003; Washington DC. Symposium 1133.

46. Hulgan T, Haas DW, Haines JL, et al. Mitochondrial haplogroups and peripheral neuropathy during antiretroviral therapy: an adult AIDS clinical trials group study. AIDS. 2005;19(13):1341-1349.

Cited By:

This article has been cited 40 time(s).

Infection Genetics and Evolution
Pharmacogenetics of antiretroviral drugs for the treatment of HIV-infected patients: An update
Cressey, TR; Lallemant, M
Infection Genetics and Evolution, 7(2): 333-342.
10.1016/j.meegid.2006.08.004
CrossRef
European Journal of Pharmacology
Mechanisms of renal anionic drug transport
El-Sheikh, AAK; Masereeuw, R; Russel, FGM
European Journal of Pharmacology, 585(): 245-255.
10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.02.085
CrossRef
Journal of Hepatology
Gilbert's syndrome and hyperbilirubinemia in protease inhibitor therapy - An extended haplotype of genetic variants increases risk in indinavir treatment
Lankisch, TO; Behrens, G; Ehmer, U; Mobius, U; Rockstroh, J; Wehmeier, M; Kalthoff, S; Freiberg, N; Manns, MP; Schmidt, RE; Strassburg, CP
Journal of Hepatology, 50(5): 1010-1018.
10.1016/j.jhep.2008.12.030
CrossRef
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Effect of an antiretroviral regimen containing ritonavir boosted lopinavir on intestinal and hepatic CYP3A, CYP2D6 and P-glycoprotein in HIV-infected patients
Wyen, C; Fuhr, U; Frank, D; Aarnoutse, RE; Klaassen, T; Lazar, A; Seeringer, A; Doroshyenko, O; Kirchheiner, JC; Abdulrazik, F; Schmeisser, N; Lehmann, C; Hein, W; Schomig, E; Burger, DM; Fatkenheuer, G; Jetter, A
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 84(1): 75-82.
10.1038/sj.clpt.6100452
CrossRef
Drug Metabolism and Disposition
The influence of CYP3A5 genotype on dexamethasone induction of CYP3A activity in African Americans
Roberts, PJ; Rollins, KD; Kashuba, ADM; Paine, MF; Nelsen, AC; Williams, EE; Moran, C; Lamba, JK; Schuetz, EG; Hawke, RL
Drug Metabolism and Disposition, 36(8): 1465-1469.
10.1124/dmd.107.020065
CrossRef
Journal of Medical Virology
Expression levels of MDR1, MRP1, MRP4, and MRP5 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV infected patients failing antiretroviral therapy
Turriziani, O; Gianotti, N; Falasca, F; Boni, A; Vestri, AR; Zoccoli, A; Lazzarin, A; Antonelli, G
Journal of Medical Virology, 80(5): 766-771.
10.1002/jmv.21152
CrossRef
International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology, Vol 280
Impact of Atp-Binding Cassette Transporters on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Therapy
Weiss, J; Haefeli, WE
International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology, Vol 280, 280(): 219-279.
10.1016/S1937-6448(10)80005-X
CrossRef
Pharmacogenomics
Drug transporter pharmacogenetics in nucleoside-based therapies
Errasti-Murugarren, E; Pastor-Anglada, M
Pharmacogenomics, 11(6): 809-841.
10.2217/PGS.10.70
CrossRef
Pharmacogenomics
Advances in pharmacogenomics of antiretrovirals: an update
Ma, Q; Brazeau, D; Forrest, A; Morse, GD
Pharmacogenomics, 8(9): 1169-1178.
10.2217/14622416.8.9.1169
CrossRef
Pharmacogenomics Journal
Variability in human hepatic MRP4 expression: influence of cholestasis and genotype
Gradhand, U; Lang, T; Schaeffeler, E; Glaeser, H; Tegude, H; Klein, K; Fritz, P; Jedlitschky, G; Kroemer, HK; Bachmakov, I; Anwald, B; Kerb, R; Zanger, UM; Eichelbaum, M; Schwab, M; Fromm, MF
Pharmacogenomics Journal, 8(1): 42-52.
10.1038/sj.tpj.6500451
CrossRef
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Pharmacogenetics of anti-HIV drugs
Telenti, A; Zanger, UM
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 48(): 227-256.
10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.48.113006.094753
CrossRef
Pharmacogenomics
Pharmacogenomics of CYP3A: considerations for HIV treatment
Lakhman, SS; Ma, Q; Morse, GD
Pharmacogenomics, 10(8): 1323-1339.
10.2217/PGS.09.53
CrossRef
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
The human multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4, ABCC4): Functional analysis of a highly polymorphic gene
Abla, N; Chinn, LW; Nakamura, T; Liu, L; Huang, CC; Johns, SJ; Kawamoto, M; Stryke, D; Taylor, TR; Ferrin, TE; Giacomini, KM; Kroetz, DL
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 325(3): 859-868.
10.1124/jpet.108.136523
CrossRef
Plos One
Steady State Bioequivalence of Generic and Innovator Formulations of Stavudine, Lamivudine, and Nevirapine in HIV-Infected Ugandan Adults
Byakika-Tusiime, J; Chinn, LW; Oyugi, JH; Obua, C; Bangsberg, DR; Kroetz, DL
Plos One, 3(): -.
ARTN e3981
CrossRef
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
CYP3A5 genotype has an impact on the metabolism of the HIV protease inhibitor saquinavir
Josephson, F; Allqvist, A; Janabi, M; Sayi, J; Aklillu, E; Jande, M; Mahindi, M; Burhenne, J; Bottiger, Y; Gustafsson, LL; Haefeli, WE; Bertilsson, L
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 81(5): 708-712.
10.1038/sj.clpt.6100117
CrossRef
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
The effect of ABCG2 V12M, Q141K and Q126X, known functional variants in vitro, on the disposition of lamivudine
Kim, HS; Sunwoo, YE; Ryu, JY; Kang, HJ; Jung, HE; Song, IS; Kim, EY; Shim, JC; Shon, JH; Shin, JG
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 64(5): 645-654.
10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.02944.x
CrossRef
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
The effect of lopinavir/ritonavir on the renal clearance of tenofovir in HIV-infected patients
Kiser, JJ; Carten, ML; Aquilante, CL; Anderson, PL; Wolfe, P; King, TM; Delahunty, T; Bushman, LR; Fletcher, CV
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 83(2): 265-272.
10.1038/sj.clpt.6100269
CrossRef
Pharmacogenomics
Pharmacogenetics of tenofovir treatment
Rodriguez-Novoa, S; Labarga, P; Soriano, V
Pharmacogenomics, 10(): 1675-1685.
10.2217/PGS.09.115
CrossRef
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Atazanavir pharmacokinetics in genetically determined CYP3A5 expressors versus non-expressors
Anderson, PL; Aquilante, CL; Gardner, EM; Predhomme, J; McDaneld, P; Bushman, LR; Zheng, JH; Ray, M; MaWhinney, S
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 64(5): 1071-1079.
10.1093/jac/dkp317
CrossRef
Current Hiv Research
HIV Pharmacogenetics in Clinical Practice: Recent Achievements and Future Challenges
Tozzi, V; Libertone, R; Liuzzi, G
Current Hiv Research, 6(6): 544-554.

Current Opinion in Drug Discovery & Development
Current HIV therapeutics: Mechanistic and chemical determinants of toxicity
Chiao, SK; Romero, DL; Johnson, DE
Current Opinion in Drug Discovery & Development, 12(1): 53-60.

Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Role of Placental ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporters in Antiretroviral Therapy During Pregnancy
Gulati, A; Gerk, PM
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 98(7): 2317-2335.
10.1002/jps.21623
CrossRef
Drug Metabolism Reviews
Pharmacogenomics of MRP transporters (ABCC1-5) and BCRP (ABCG2)
Gradhand, U; Kim, RB
Drug Metabolism Reviews, 40(2): 317-354.
10.1080/03602530801952617
CrossRef
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
The complexities of antiretroviral drug-drug interactions: role of ABC and SLC transporters
Kis, O; Robillard, K; Chan, GNY; Bendayan, R
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 31(1): 22-35.

International Journal of Std & AIDS
The impact of pharmacogenetics on HIV therapy
Mahungu, TW; Johnson, MA; Owen, A; Back, DJ
International Journal of Std & AIDS, 20(3): 145-151.
10.1258/ijsa.2008.008369
CrossRef
Journal of Infectious Diseases
Greater tenofovir-associated renal function decline with protease inhibitor-based versus nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-based therapy
Goicoechea, M; Liu, S; Best, B; Sun, S; Jain, S; Kemper, C; Witt, M; Diamond, C; Haubrich, R; Louie, S
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 197(1): 102-108.
10.1086/524061
CrossRef
Hiv Clinical Trials
ABCB1 allele polymorphism is associated with virological efficacy in naive HIV-infected patients on HAART containing nonboosted PIs but not boosted PIs
de la Tribonniere, X; Broly, F; Deuffic-Burban, S; Bocket, L; Ajana, F; Viget, N; Melliez, H; Mouton, Y; Yazdanpanah, Y
Hiv Clinical Trials, 9(3): 192-201.
10.1310/hct0903-192
CrossRef
Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Intracellular Pharmacokinetics of Antiretroviral Drugs in HIV-Infected Patients, and their Correlation with Drug Action
Bazzoli, C; Jullien, V; Le Tiec, C; Rey, E; Mentre, F; Taburet, AM
Clinical Pharmacokinetics, 49(1): 17-45.

European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Influence of pharmacogenetics on indinavir disposition and short-term response in HIV patients initiating HAART
Bertrand, J; Treluyer, JM; Panhard, X; Tran, A; Auleley, S; Rey, E; Salmon-Ceron, D; Duval, X; Mentre, F
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 65(7): 667-678.
10.1007/s00228-009-0660-5
CrossRef
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Interindividual Variability in Pharmacokinetics of Generic Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors in TB/HIV-Coinfected Ghanaian Patients: UGT2B7*1c Is Associated With Faster Zidovudine Clearance and Glucuronidation
Kwara, A; Lartey, M; Boamah, I; Rezk, NL; Oliver-Commey, J; Kenu, E; Kashuba, ADM; Court, MH
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 49(9): 1079-1090.
10.1177/0091270009338482
CrossRef
Antiviral Research
Pharmacogenetics of antiretrovirals
Tozzi, V
Antiviral Research, 85(1): 190-200.
10.1016/j.antiviral.2009.09.001
CrossRef
Current Medicinal Chemistry
Therapeutic drug monitoring in the management of HIV-infected patients
Jelena, I; Emanuele, N; Paolo, A; Rita, B; Elisabetta, DM; Stefania, N; Paolo, PL; Valerio, T; Giuseppe, I; Pasquale, N
Current Medicinal Chemistry, 15(): 1925-1939.

Indian Journal of Medical Research
Pharmacokinetics of lamivudine & stavudine in generic fixed-dose combinations in HIV-1 infected adults in India
Kumar, AKH; Ramachandran, G; Rajasekaran, S; Padmapriyadarsini, C; Narendran, G; Anitha, S; Subramanyam, S; Kumaraswami, V; Swaminathan, S
Indian Journal of Medical Research, 130(4): 451-457.

Pharmacogenomics Journal
Functional characterization of ABCC2 promoter polymorphisms and allele-specific expression
Nguyen, TD; Markova, S; Liu, W; Gow, JM; Baldwin, RM; Habashian, M; Relling, MV; Ratain, MJ; Kroetz, DL
Pharmacogenomics Journal, 13(5): 396-402.
10.1038/tpj.2012.20
CrossRef
Xenobiotica
Effects of OCT2 c.602C > T genetic variant on the pharmacokinetics of lamivudine
Choi, CI; Bae, JW; Keum, SK; Lee, YJ; Lee, HI; Jang, CG; Lee, SY
Xenobiotica, 43(7): 636-640.
10.3109/00498254.2012.747710
CrossRef
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Clinical pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs in older persons
Schoen, JC; Erlandson, KM; Anderson, PL
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology, 9(5): 573-588.
10.1517/17425255.2013.781153
CrossRef
AIDS
Impairment in kidney tubular function in patients receiving tenofovir is associated with higher tenofovir plasma concentrations
Soriano, V; Rodríguez-Nóvoa, S; Labarga, P; D'Avolio, A; Barreiro, P; Albalate, M; Vispo, E; Solera, C; Siccardi, M; Bonora, S; Di Perri, G
AIDS, 24(7): 1064-1066.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e32833202e2
PDF (301) | CrossRef
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Pharmacogenetics and the potential for the individualization of antiretroviral therapy
Phillips, EJ; Mallal, SA
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, 21(1): 16-24.
10.1097/QCO.0b013e3282f42224
PDF (165) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Clinical and Genetic Determinants of Intracellular Tenofovir Diphosphate Concentrations in HIV-Infected Patients
Fletcher, CV; Kiser, JJ; Aquilante, CL; Anderson, PL; King, TM; Carten, ML
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 47(3): 298-303.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e31815e7478
PDF (107) | CrossRef
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
ADME pharmacogenetics: investigation of the pharmacokinetics of the antiretroviral agent lopinavir coformulated with ritonavir
Lubomirov, R; di Iulio, J; Fayet, A; Colombo, S; Martinez, R; Marzolini, C; Furrer, H; Vernazza, P; Calmy, A; Cavassini, M; Ledergerber, B; Rentsch, K; Descombes, P; Buclin, T; Decosterd, LA; Csajka, C; Telenti, A; ; the Swiss HIV Cohort Study,
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics, 20(4): 217-230.
10.1097/FPC.0b013e328336eee4
PDF (400) | CrossRef
Back to Top | Article Outline
Keywords:

antiretroviral therapy; pharmacokinetics; pharmacodynamics; clinical pharmacology; pharmacogenetics; HIV/AIDS

© 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Login

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.