Skip Navigation LinksHome > August 1, 2005 - Volume 39 - Issue 4 > Meta-Analysis of High-Risk Sexual Behavior in Persons Aware...
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes:
Epidemiology and Social Science

Meta-Analysis of High-Risk Sexual Behavior in Persons Aware and Unaware They are Infected With HIV in the United States: Implications for HIV Prevention Programs

Marks, Gary; Crepaz, Nicole PhD; Senterfitt, J Walton PhD; Janssen, Robert S MD

Free Access
Article Outline
Collapse Box

Author Information

From the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA.

Received for publication June 9, 2004; accepted November 4, 2004.

Reprints: Gary Marks, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, Mailstop E-45, Atlanta, GA 30333 (e-mail: gmarks@cdc.gov).

Collapse Box

Abstract

Objectives: To compare the prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors in HIV+ persons aware of their serostatus with that in HIV+ persons unaware of their status in the United States and to discuss implications for HIV prevention programs.

Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted on 11 independent findings. Six findings compared HIV+ aware persons with independent groups of HIV+ unaware persons (between-group comparisons), and 5 findings compared seroconverting individuals before and after being notified of their HIV+ status (within-subject comparisons). Outcomes were self-reported unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse (UAV) during specified recall periods.

Results: The analysis integrating all 11 findings indicated that the prevalence of UAV with any partner was an average of 53% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 45%-60%) lower in HIV+ persons aware of their status relative to HIV+ persons unaware of their status. There was a 68% reduction (95% CI: 59%-76%) after adjusting the data of the primary studies to focus on UAV with partners who were not already HIV+. The reductions were larger in between-group comparisons than in within-subject comparisons. Findings for men and women were highly similar.

Conclusions: The prevalence of high-risk sexual behavior is reduced substantially after people become aware they are HIV+. Increased emphasis on HIV testing and counseling is needed to reduce exposure to HIV from persons unaware they are infected. Ongoing prevention services are needed for persons who know they are HIV+ and continue to engage in high-risk behavior.

Sexually transmitted HIV infection may stem from 2 groups of people: HIV+ persons unaware they are infected and HIV+ persons aware of their infection status. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 850,000 to 900,000 persons are living with HIV in the United States and that approximately 650,000 are aware of their status and 250,000 are not.1,2 Little is known about the relative difference between these 2 groups in exposing uninfected sex partners to HIV. A better understanding of this relative difference can help to guide public health strategies and allocation of resources to fight the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States.

To reduce the risk of HIV transmission, the CDC recommends a variety of interventions in medical care and community settings for those who are aware of their status. Linkage to medical care and antiretroviral therapy, which may reduce viral load and transmission risk,3-6 and ongoing behavioral interventions are important approaches for those who know they are living with HIV. To reach those who are unaware of their infection, the CDC recommends making HIV counseling and testing more accessible and acceptable for people at high risk for HIV infection.7 Of course, both strategic pathways are important, and prevention efforts can be informed by even roughly estimating the differences in sexual risk behaviors between awareness groups. We performed a meta-analysis of findings that compared the prevalence of unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse (UAV) between persons who were aware and unaware of their HIV infection.

Back to Top | Article Outline

METHODS

Literature Search and Study Selection

Electronic databases, including MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, AIDSLINE, and SocioFile from January 1987 through January 2004, were searched to identify relevant published articles and conference abstracts. We crossed multiple search terms (ie, keywords and medical subject headings) reflecting 2 categories: (1) HIV status (HIV, AIDS, antibody, positive, counseling, testing, and aware) and (2) sexual behavior or sexually transmitted diseases (sexual behavior, sex, unsafe, unprotected, condom, anal, vaginal, intercourse, risk, high risk, exposure, transmission, sexually transmitted disease, STD, sexually transmitted infection, STI, gonorrhea, and syphilis). Additional material was identified from reference lists of pertinent articles. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they met all the following criteria:

1. Data from the United States

2. Compared a group of HIV+ aware persons with an independent group of HIV+ unaware persons (ie, between-group comparison) or measured seroconverting individuals before and after notification of HIV+ status (ie, within-subject comparison)

3. Measured any of the following sexual behaviors during a specified recall period:

a. Unprotected insertive or receptive anal intercourse or unprotected vaginal intercourse

b. Consistency of condom use during sexual intercourse

c. Other sexual risk measures that combined components of the previous categories

4. Data were reported or available to calculate the prevalence of UAV (ie, 1 or more instances during the recall period)

A total of 620 abstracts were screened. Although many studies identified in the search examined the prevalence of sexual behavior or the effects of HIV testing and counseling, few of the screened sources provided the specific types of comparisons (criterion 2) needed for this meta-analysis. Four studies8-11 published in peer-reviewed journals and 4 multisite data sets met inclusion criteria. The 4 data sets were (1) the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS),12 (2) the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS),13 (3) the Supplement to HIV/AIDS Surveillance (SHAS phase 1, 1995-2000),14 and (4) SHAS phase 2 (2000-2003).15 The 2 SHAS data sets were independent (no dual participation). We obtained the data necessary for our meta-analysis directly from the investigators. The Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) was also eligible for inclusion but not used because it had too few seroconversions for a meaningful analysis.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Data Abstraction

Using a standardized spreadsheet, information on the following variables was abstracted: author(s), location and/or setting of data collection, study period, sample characteristics (eg, gender), sample size, type of comparison (between-group vs. within-subject), data collection methods (self-administered vs. interviewer-administered questionnaire), sexual behavior measured, recall period, and findings.

The data abstraction was guided by the following rules:

1. If a study had independent samples of participants (eg, men, women) and reported data on each sample, we calculated an effect size (ES) for each independent sample.8,14,15

2. To ensure independence of data in the meta-analysis, only 1 sexual behavior measure per study was used in calculating the overall ES. If separate data were available for unprotected insertive and receptive anal intercourse, we included only insertive activity because it has a higher risk of transmitting HIV when performed by an HIV+ person.16 One study8 used a composite index (UAV or oral sex).

Back to Top | Article Outline
Calculation of Effect Size

Effect sizes were estimated with a prevalence ratio (PR). For between-group comparisons, the HIV+ aware groups' prevalence of UAV was divided by the HIV+ unaware groups' prevalence of UAV, resulting in the PR. For within-subject comparisons, PR was calculated by dividing the prevalence of UAV at the postnotification period by the prevalence at the prenotification period. For each type of comparison, 1−PR was then calculated to reflect the percentage reduction in the prevalence of UAV in aware groups relative to unaware groups (or prenotification vs. postnotification period).

Standard meta-analytic methods were used.17,18 A random-effects model for aggregating individual ESs was used because it provides a more conservative estimate (than a fixed-effects model) of the variance and generates more accurate inferences about a population of studies beyond those included in the review.19 We first used the natural logarithm to obtain the log PR (lnPR) and calculated its corresponding weight (ie, inverse variance) for each independent sample. For within-subject comparisons, the variance of lnPR was adjusted for nonindependence of pre- and postnotification sexual behavior before aggregation (Appendix). To calculate the overall ES, we multiplied each lnPR by its weight, summed the weighted lnPR across samples, and then divided by the sum of the weights. In presenting the results, the aggregated lnPR was converted back to the PR by exponential function. 1−PR was then derived, along with a 95% confidence interval (CI).

Sensitivity analyses examined the effect of outliers by comparing the aggregated ES with estimates obtained after iterations using k−1 findings (k = number of independent samples). In other words, we removed a finding and calculated the aggregated ES. We then replaced that finding, removed another, and repeated the process. Stratified analyses were also conducted to examine whether ESs differed by type of comparison (between-group vs. within-subject) and gender of participants (men vs. women).

Back to Top | Article Outline
Adjustment for HIV Serostatus of Sex Partners

The meta-analysis was conducted with and without applying an adjustment factor to primary studies that assessed self-reported sexual behavior with any partner.8-10,12,14 Data on the prevalence of UAV with any partner may bias the meta-analysis, because some people who know they are HIV+ only have unprotected sex with partners perceived to be HIV+.20-22 The adjustment factor focused the analysis on behavior with partners at risk for infection.

The adjustment was applied to the prevalence data of HIV+ aware participants (or prevalence during the postnotification period) before conducting the meta-analysis. The adjustment was not applied to the HIV+ unaware group (or prenotification period) under the reasonable assumption that unawareness leaves risky behavior patterns unaltered and that persons who are unaware of their infection are not likely to be having unprotected sex only with HIV+ partners. Accordingly, we assume that some of their sexual activity is with persons at risk for infection.

The empirically derived adjustment factor was calculated with data from 6 US studies conducted from 1995 to 2001 (J. L. Richardson, S. Stoyanoff, J. Milam, et al, unpublished data, 1999)22-26 different from those in the meta-analysis. The participants in the “adjustment studies” were all aware of their HIV+ status and were recruited at a variety of locations (eg, HIV clinics, AIDS service organizations, bars, clubs). The adjustment studies contained data on self-reported UAV with any partners and with partners reported to be HIV+. The behavioral window varied (eg, past 3 months, last 2 sexual encounters). Half of the studies used self-administered surveys, and the other half used face-to-face interviews.

For each adjustment study, we first calculated the percentage of participants who engaged in UAV with any partner (factor “A”). Next, participants who engaged in those risk behaviors only with partners reported to be HIV+ were removed from the numerator. The percentage was then recalculated using all participants in the denominator to estimate the prevalence of UAV with partners at risk for infection (factor “B”). Dividing this “at-risk prevalence” (B) by the “any partner prevalence” (A) and then subtracting from 1 (ie, 1−B/A) yields the percentage reduction in the prevalence of UAV with at-risk partners relative to any partner. Calculations were performed for 3 groups to identify appropriate adjustment indices for the samples in the meta-analysis: men who have sex with men (MSM; 5 samples), men in general (4 samples that pooled MSM and heterosexual men), and women (3 samples).

The adjustment index was calculated as the unweighted average of the reductions across studies within each group. The unweighted average minimizes the influence of sample size and methodologic factors that may affect behavioral assessment. The unweighted average reduction was 43% (range: 27.3%-52.5%) for MSM, 47.5% (range: 42.0%-51.8%) for men in general, and 45.1% (range: 38.9%-56.0%) for women. These indices were applied only to studies that assessed UAV with any partner. For example, HIV+ aware MSM's prevalence of UAV with any partner was reduced 43% to derive an estimated prevalence of UAV with at-risk partners. The adjustment factor was not applied to studies that assessed behavior with at-risk partners (study by Colfax et al,11 SHAS phase 2 data set), nor was it applied to “casual partners” (HERS data set), because many of those casual partners were probably at risk. Sensitivity analyses examined whether there were any changes in the meta-analytic results when the adjustment index was calculated as a weighted average (ie, applying an inverse variance weight to each adjustment study before averaging).

Back to Top | Article Outline

RESULTS

Eleven independent findings from 1988 through 2003 were included in the meta-analysis. Six were between-group comparisons, and 5 were within-subject comparisons. Table 1 presents the characteristics of the studies and the unadjusted findings. Every study showed that the prevalence of UAV was lower in the HIV+ aware group (or postnotification period) compared with the HIV+ unaware group (or prenotification period).

Table 1
Table 1
Image Tools
Table 1
Table 1
Image Tools

Two sets of results of the random-effects models are presented in Table 2: findings based on the unadjusted data and findings based on data adjusted to focus on at-risk sex partners. The combined ES for all 11 findings in the unadjusted model indicates that the prevalence of UAV was an average of 53% (95% CI: 45%-60%) lower in HIV+ aware persons relative to HIV+ unaware persons. The reduction was 68% (95% CI: 59%-76%) in the adjusted model (k = 11). Each of these reductions differed significantly from 0 (Z > 25, P < 0.001). In both models, the reduction was significantly larger in the between-group findings (k = 6) compared with the within-subject findings (k = 5) (unadjusted model: χ(1)2 = 38.71, P < 0.0001; adjusted model: χ(1)2 = 8.32, P < 0.01). The ESs of the men and women did not differ significantly in either model (unadjusted: χ(1)2 = 0.18, P > 0.50; adjusted: χ(1)2 = 2.47, P > 0.10).

Table 2
Table 2
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline
Sensitivity Analyses

Sensitivity analyses indicated that no individual finding appreciably affected the overall (k = 11) or between-group (k = 6) ES in the two models. The ESs were affected less than ±3% (eg, absolute change from 68% to 70% reduction in the prevalence of UAV) with any single finding removed. For the unadjusted and adjusted models, the within-group ES (k = 5) changed no more than ±5% and the men's ES (k = 7) changed no more than ±4%. There was slightly more instability in the women's aggregated findings. The ES changed no more than ±4% in the women's unadjusted model but changed up to 8% in the adjusted model. For example, the ES was reduced nearly 8% in the adjusted model when the SHAS phase 1 finding was removed and was increased 4% in the adjusted model when the SHAS phase 2 finding was removed. These individual findings (especially the SHAS phase 1 finding) were heavily weighted in the aggregated analysis because of large sample sizes. In summary, the overall models (k = 11) showed a high level of stability. The stability decreased only slightly when analyses were performed separately for between-group and within-subject comparisons. The stability of the men's data exceeded the stability of the women's data in the adjusted model.

Finally, we examined the effect of using a weighted (as opposed to an unweighted) average of the adjustment studies that focused the analysis on at-risk sex partners. The meta-analytic findings were virtually identical when using these 2 methods (absolute difference of 1% in the estimated ESs).

Back to Top | Article Outline

DISCUSSION

Our meta-analysis shows that the prevalence of high-risk sexual behavior is markedly lower in HIV+ persons aware of their seropositive status than in HIV+ persons unaware of their status. The findings of studies conducted in the United States from 1988 through 2003 were highly consistent despite methodologic differences among the investigations. A highly similar picture emerges from studies that examined STD acquisition rates between HIV-infected aware and unaware persons.27-30 These studies were not included in the meta-analysis because of the qualitatively different nature of the outcome variable and the fact that the partner serostatus adjustment could not validly be applied to those studies. Of persons presenting at an STD clinic in New Orleans (1989-1991) with a first-time diagnosis of gonorrhea, new gonorrhea diagnoses were 50% lower during 2 to 3 years of follow-up in persons aware relative to unaware that they were HIV+.27 In an STD clinic in Miami in 1988 through 1989, the percentage with a newly diagnosed STD declined 11% in the 6 months after they learned they had HIV infection compared with the 6 months before their HIV+ diagnosis.28 STD studies conducted in other countries show even stronger findings. Of HIV+ persons presenting at a genitourinary clinic in London in 1994, the prevalence of diagnosed STDs was 73% lower in the year after HIV diagnosis than in the year before.29 Finally, of HIV+ women presenting at prenatal and pediatric clinics in Rwanda (1988-1989), the prevalence of clinically diagnosed gonorrhea was 54% lower in the year after than the year before HIV diagnosis.30

In our analysis, the between-group and within-subject comparisons demonstrated significant reductions in self-reported UAV, although the reduction was higher in the between-group design. One explanation is that a group of HIV+ aware persons may differ from a group of HIV+ unaware persons on other variables associated with unsafe sex, potentially accentuating the difference between the groups. For example, on average, people who are unaware they are infected with HIV are likely to be younger than people who are aware they are HIV+.31 The prevalence of unsafe sex has been found to be higher among younger than older MSM. 31,32

Another issue concerns whether behavior change in HIV+ aware persons is maintained over time. Additional analysis of the SHAS phase 2 data set showed that the prevalence of UAV in the most recent encounter with an at-risk partner was remarkably similar among subgroups of HIV+ aware men who differed in length of time they knew they were HIV+ (range: 1-24 months [17%], 25-48 months [16%], 49-72 months [17%], 73-96 months [14%], and >96 months [13%]). The prevalence was 39% in HIV+ unaware men. A highly similar pattern was seen in HIV+ aware women in SHAS phase 2 and in men and women in SHAS phase 1. One other study not included in the meta-analysis because it assessed sexual behavior of HIV+ aware persons but not HIV+ unaware persons did not confirm this pattern. The prevalence of UAV was higher in persons aware of their infection for 5 or more years compared with those diagnosed more recently.33 These mixed results make it difficult to reach conclusions at this time about the stability of behavior change after being diagnosed HIV+. This issue merits attention in future research.

Our meta-analytic findings must be viewed within the context of the methodologic limitations of the primary studies. First, the studies used self-reported sexual behavior. Self-reports are open to socially desirable responding, and some HIV+ aware persons may underreport unprotected sex with at-risk partners.34 US studies of HIV serodiscordant homosexual35 and heterosexual36 couples demonstrate high levels of agreement (approximately 90%) between couple members in self-reports of condom use, however. We were not able to gauge the level of partner agreement in the studies analyzed here. Second, we were not able to examine the number of sex partners placed at risk by HIV+ aware and HIV+ unaware persons, because those data were not available in the literature. The difference between these groups in the prevalence of UAV may not necessarily reflect the magnitude of difference in the number of sex partners placed at risk. Our analysis, however, provides a starting point for a more refined model when additional data become available. Third, the difference in the prevalence of UAV between HIV+ aware and HIV+ unaware persons may not reflect differences in HIV transmission rates between groups. Actual transmission depends on a host of biologic factors. For example, transmission risk is increased when an individual who is the source of exposure is in the primary HIV infection stage,37 has a high viral load,3,4 or has an STD.38,39 These factors would elevate transmission risk more from HIV+ unaware than HIV+ aware persons, because unaware persons as a group are more likely to be in the primary infection stage, to a have higher viral load because they are not in medical care, and to have an STD.27-30

Our findings reinforce the need for a multidimensional approach to HIV prevention.7 Resources and efforts are needed to make HIV testing opportunities more accessible (eg, rapid tests) and to reduce barriers to testing so that infected persons learn their status. Public health campaigns targeting young MSM, especially young MSM of color, are urgently needed, because many of these men are unaware they are infected.40 Promising but underused methods for reaching such persons include offering HIV testing routinely in all health care settings in high HIV prevalence areas7; offering testing at venues that attract high-risk persons; adding HIV testing capacity to all effective educational outreach and risk reduction interventions41; and gaining the cooperation of current HIV+ aware persons to reach members of their sexual and social networks for HIV testing, counseling, and care if needed.42

Clearly, HIV counseling and testing alone are not enough to control the HIV epidemic. Behavioral interventions for people aware they are infected and for those at high risk for HIV are needed. Those interventions may reduce sexual risk behavior by as much as 30% to 40%.43-45 For those aware that they are HIV+, the challenge is to find settings and approaches for delivering prevention programs to this population over time. The HIV clinic is an ideal setting for offering prevention messages and counseling to HIV+ persons and for integrating prevention with routine medical care.46 Such counseling from HIV providers has been shown to be efficacious in reducing unprotected intercourse in HIV+ patients.44 Other promising interventions have been delivered by HIV+ peers in community settings.47 Assisting HIV+ people to establish social networks that encourage risk reduction and provide social support for seeking medical care and adhering to treatment regimens has also shown promise in demonstration projects.48 Together, these approaches may contribute to more rapid control of the HIV epidemic in the United States and elsewhere.

Back to Top | Article Outline

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors thank Paul Denning, Michael Campsmith, and Glenn Nakamura for providing data from the SHAS; the Executive Committee of the HERS for permission to use HERS data; Merle Hamburger for assistance in constructing the HERS seroconversion data set; the Executive Committee of the MACS for permission to use MACS data; Mary Elizabeth Gore and Lisa Jacobson for assistance in constructing the MACS variables used in the analysis; Ramses Sadek for statistical consultation; and Ida Onorato for helpful comments on several substantive issues.

Back to Top | Article Outline

REFERENCES

1. Fleming PL, Byers RH, Sweeney PA, et al. HIV prevalence in the United States, 2000. Presented at: 9th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; 2002; Seattle.

2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Advancing HIV prevention: new strategies for a changing epidemic-United States, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2003;52:329-332.

3. Quinn TC, Wawer MJ, Sewankambo D, et al. Viral load and heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Rakai Project Study Group. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:921-929.

4. Pedraza MA, del Romero J, Roldan F, et al. Heterosexual transmission of HIV-1 associated with high plasma viral load levels and a positive viral isolation in the infected partner. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1999;21:120-125.

5. Vernazza PL, Gilliam BL, Flepp M, et al. Effect of antiviral treatment on the shedding of HIV-1 in semen. AIDS. 1997;11:1249-1254.

6. Vernazza PL, Troiani L, Flepp MJ, et al. Potent antiretroviral treatment of HIV-infection results in suppression of the seminal shedding of HIV. AIDS. 2000;14:117-121.

7. Janssen RS, Holtgrave DR, Valdiserri RO, et al. The Serostatus Approach to Fighting the HIV Epidemic: prevention strategies for infected individuals. Am J Public Health. 2001;91:1019-1024.

8. Cleary PD, Devanter NV, Rogers TF, et al. Behavior changes after notification of HIV infection. Am J Public Health. 1991;81:1586-1590.

9. McCusker J, Stoddard AM, Mayer KH, et al. Effects of HIV antibody test knowledge on subsequent sexual behaviors in a cohort of homosexually active men. Am J Public Health. 1988;78:462-467.

10. Valleroy LA, MacKellar DA, Karon JM, et al. HIV prevalence and associated risks in young men who have sex with men. JAMA. 2000;284:198-204.

11. Colfax GN, Buchbinder SP, Cornelisse PGA, et al. Sexual risk behaviors and implications for secondary HIV transmission during and after HIV seroconversion. AIDS. 2002;16:1529-1535.

12. Saah AJ, Hoover DR, Weng S, et al. Association of HLA profiles with early plasma viral load, CD4+ cell count and rate of progression to AIDS following acute HIV-1 infection. Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. AIDS. 1998;12:2107-2113.

13. Smith DK, Warren DL, Vlahov D, et al. Design and baseline participant characteristics of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemiology Research (HER) Study: a prospective cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus infection in US women. Am J Epidemiol. 1997;146:459-469.

14. Buehler JW, Diaz T, Hersh BS, et al. The Supplement to HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project: an approach for monitoring HIV risk behaviors. Public Health Rep. 1996;111:133-137.

15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Late versus early testing of HIV-16 sites, United States, 2000-2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2003;52:581-586.

16. Vittinghoff E, Douglas J, Judson F, et al. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:306-311.

17. Cooper H, Hedges LV. The Handbook of Research Synthesis. New York: Russell Sage Foundation; 1994.

18. Lipsey MW, Wilson DB. Practical Meta-Analysis. Thousand Oaks: Sage; 2001.

19. Hedges LV, Vevea JL. Fixed and random effects models in meta-analysis. Psychol Methods. 1998;3:486-504.

20. Marks G, Cantero PJ, Simoni JM. Is acculturation associated with sexual risk behaviours? An investigation of HIV-positive Latino men and women. AIDS Care. 1998;10:283-295.

21. Posner SF, Marks G. Prevalence of high-risk sex among HIV-positive gay and bisexual men: a longitudinal analysis. Am J Prev Med. 1996;12:472-477.

22. Kalichman SC. Psychological and social correlates of high-risk sexual behaviour among men and women living with HIV/AIDS. AIDS Care. 1999;11:415-428.

23. Wolitski RJ. Dataset: Seropositive Urban Men's Intervention Study (SUMIT). Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2000.

24. Marks G. Dataset: HIV attributions and unsafe sex in seropositive men. Los Angeles, CA: University of Southern California; 1996.

25. Marks G. Dataset: drug use and unsafe sex in HIV+ men and women. Los Angeles, CA: University of Southern California; 1995.

26. Mansergh G, Colfax GN, Marks G, et al. Dataset: HIV prevention messages and sexual risk behavior in men who have sex with men. San Francisco: San Francisco Public Health Department and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2001.

27. Chamot E, Couglin SS, Farley TA, et al. Gonorrhea incidence and HIV testing and counseling among adolescents and young adults seen at a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases. AIDS. 1999;13:971-979.

28. Otten MW, Zaidi AA, Wroten JE, et al. Changes in sexually transmitted disease rates after HIV testing and posttest counseling, Miami, 1988 to 1989. Am J Public Health. 1993;83:529-533.

29. George N, Green J, Murphy S. Sexually transmitted disease rates before and after HIV testing. Int J STD AIDS. 1998;9:291-293.

30. Allen S, Serufilira A, Bogaerts J, et al. Confidential HIV testing and condom promotion in Africa. JAMA. 1992;268:3338-3343.

31. Mansergh G, Marks G. Age and risk of HIV infection in men who have sex with men. AIDS. 1998;12:1119-1128.

32. Crepaz N, Marks G, Mansergh G, et al. Age-related risk for HIV infection in men who have sex with men: examination of behavioral, relationship, and serostatus variables. AIDS Educ Prev. 2000;12:405-415.

33. McGowan JP, Shah SS, Ganea CE, et al. Risk behavior for transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among HIV-seropositive individuals in an urban setting. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:122-127.

34. Catania JA, Gibson DR, Chitwood DD, et al. Methodological problems in AIDS behavioral research: influences on measurement error and participation bias in studies on sexual behavior. Psychol Bull. 1990;108:339-362.

35. Seage GR III, Mayer KH, Horsburgh CR, et al. Corroboration of sexual histories among male homosexual couples. Am J Epidemiol. 1992;135:79-84.

36. Padian NS. Sexual histories of heterosexual couples with one HIV-infected partner. Am J Public Health. 1990;80:990-991.

37. Koopman JS, Jacquez JA, Welch GW, et al. The role of early HIV infection in the spread of HIV through populations. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1997;14:249-258.

38. Balzquez MV, Madueno JA, Jurado R, et al. Human herpesvirus-6 and the course of human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1995;9:389-394.

39. Fleming DT, Wasserheit JN. From epidemiological synergy to public health policy and practice: the contribution of other sexually transmitted diseases to sexual transmission of HIV infection. Sex Transm Infect. 1999;75:3-17.

40. MacKellar DA, Valleroy LA, Secura GM, et al. Unrecognized HIV infection, risk behaviors, and misperceptions of risk among young men who have sex with men-6 United States cities, 1994-2000 [abstract MoPeC3427]. Presented at: 14th International AIDS Conference; 2002; Barcelona.

41. Academy for Educational Development. Best Practices for Prevention With Positives. Conference Proceedings. Washington, DC; 2001.

42. Jordan WC, Tolbert L, Smith R. Partner notification and focused intervention as a means of identifying HIV-positive patients. J Natl Med Assoc. 1998;90:542-546.

43. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Synthesis Project. Compendium of HIV Prevention Interventions with Evidence of Effectiveness. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 1999.

44. Richardson JL, Milam J, McCutchan A, et al. Effect of brief provider safer-sex counseling of HIV-1 seropositive patients: a multi-clinic assessment. AIDS. 2004;18:1179-1186.

45. Kalichman SC, Rompa D, Cage M, et al. Effectiveness of an intervention to reduce HIV transmission risks in HIV-positive people. Am J Prev Med. 2001;21:84-92.

46. Marks G, Burris S, Peterman TA. Reducing sexual transmission of HIV from those who know they are infected: the need for personal and collective responsibility. AIDS. 1999;13:297-306.

47. Collins C, Morin S, Shriver M, et al. Designing Primary Prevention for People Living with HIV. San Francisco: University of California at San Francisco; 2000.

48. Senterfitt JW, Dooley W, Abdul-Quader AS. Developing comprehensive prevention services for persons living with HIV/AIDS: the Prevention for HIV-Infected Persons Project (PHIPP) [abstract 635, Track D]. Presented at: National HIV Prevention Conference; 2001; Atlanta.

Back to Top | Article Outline
APPENDIX: ADJUSTMENT FOR NONINDEPENDENCE OF RESPONSE IN THE WITHIN-SUBJECT STUDIES

We had access to individual level data from a within-subject study of MSM (MACS) and a within-subject study of women (HERS) and calculated the covariance terms for those investigations. The other within-subject studies did not provide individual level data to calculate the before and after correlations, so we imputed values based on the MACS (r = 0.49) and HERS (r = 0.20). The MACS value was used for the subgroup of men in the studies by Cleary et al8 and Colfax et al.11 The HERS value was used for the subgroup of women in the study by Cleary et al.8

We performed a sensitivity analysis to examine how much the aggregated PRs and CIs changed when these correlation values were increased or decreased by 0.20 correlation units of the original imputed values (ie, the MACS value was changed by ±0.20, the HERS value was changed by ±0.20). This ±0.20 represents a reasonable boundary for capturing the correlation between before and after behavior in the population. The aggregated PR changed half of 1% or less in each direction, and the width of the CIs increased or decreased only 4 units (percentage points) from the original. Thus, the imputation did not unduly affect the results. Cited Here...

Cited By:

This article has been cited 266 time(s).

Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica
Problems in diagnosing sexually transmitted infections and human immunodeficiency virus in primary health care in Spain
Agusti, C; Fernandez, L; Mascort, J; Carrillo, R; Casabona, J
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica, 31(7): 451-454.
10.1016/j.eimc.2012.12.012
CrossRef
Journal of the International AIDS Society
Never tested for HIV in Latin-American migrants and Spaniards: prevalence and perceived barriers
Hoyos, J; Fernadez-Balbuena, S; de la Fuente, L; Sordo, L; Ruiz, M; Barrio, G; Belza, MJ
Journal of the International AIDS Society, 16(): -.
ARTN 18560
CrossRef
Journal of Rural Health
A Qualitative Analysis of Provider Barriers and Solutions to HIV Testing for Substance Users in a Small, Largely Rural Southern State
Wright, PB; Curran, GM; Stewart, KE; Booth, BM
Journal of Rural Health, 29(4): 420-431.
10.1111/jrh.12021
CrossRef
Plos One
Burden of Infectious Diseases, Substance Use Disorders, and Mental Illness among Ukrainian Prisoners Transitioning to the Community
Azbel, L; Wickersham, JA; Grishaev, Y; Dvoryak, S; Altice, FL
Plos One, 8(3): -.
ARTN e59643
CrossRef
Contraception
HIV voluntary counseling and testing at an abortion clinic: missed opportunities for diagnosis
Newmann, SJ; Dufour, MSK; McFarland, W; Oderman, L; Kellogg, T; Louie, B; Drey, EA
Contraception, 88(1): 147-152.
10.1016/j.contraception.2012.11.015
CrossRef
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
The cost-effectiveness of rapid HIV testing in substance abuse treatment: Results of a randomized trial
Schackman, BR; Metsch, LR; Colfax, GN; Leff, JA; Wong, A; Scott, CA; Feaster, DJ; Gooden, L; Matheson, T; Haynes, LF; Paltiel, AD; Walensky, RP
Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 128(): 90-97.
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.08.009
CrossRef
International Journal of Sexual Health
The Ethics of Barebacking: Implications of gay Men's Concepts of Right and Wrong in the Context of HIV
Frasca, T; Dowsett, GW; Carballo-Dieguez, A
International Journal of Sexual Health, 25(3): 198-211.
10.1080/19317611.2013.764375
CrossRef
Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care
Nondisclosure Prosecutions and HIV Prevention: Results From an Ottawa-Based Gay Men's Sex Survey
O'Byrne, P; Bryan, A; Woodyatt, C
Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 24(1): 81-87.
10.1016/j.jana.2012.01.009
CrossRef
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association
The emerging HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men in Taiwan
Huang, YF; Chen, CH; Chang, FY
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 112(7): 369-371.
10.1016/j.jfma.2012.10.018
CrossRef
Journal of Sex Research
HIV Testing Among Heterosexual Young Adults: The Influence of Partners' Risk Behaviors and Relationship Dynamics
Longmore, MA; Johnson, WL; Manning, WD; Giordano, PC
Journal of Sex Research, 50(5): 489-501.
10.1080/00224499.2012.661101
CrossRef
Drugs-Education Prevention and Policy
How outpatient substance abuse treatment unit director activities may affect provision of community outreach services
Chuang, E; Wells, R; Alexander, J; Green, S
Drugs-Education Prevention and Policy, 20(2): 149-159.
10.3109/09687637.2012.703261
CrossRef
Bmc Public Health
Nondisclosure prosecutions and population health outcomes: examining HIV testing, HIV diagnoses, and the attitudes of men who have sex with men following nondisclosure prosecution media releases in Ottawa, Canada
O'Byrne, P; Willmore, J; Bryan, A; Friedman, DS; Hendriks, A; Horvath, C; Massenat, D; Bouchard, C; Remis, RS; Etches, V
Bmc Public Health, 13(): -.
ARTN 94
CrossRef
Plos One
Routine HIV Testing among Hospitalized Patients in Argentina. Is It Time for a Policy Change?
Socias, ME; Hermida, L; Singman, M; Kulgis, G; Armas, AD; Cando, O; Sued, O; Perez, H; Hermes, R; Presas, JL; Cahn, P
Plos One, 8(7): -.
ARTN e69517
CrossRef
Chinese Medical Journal
Impact of HIV/sexually transmitted infection testing on risky sexual behaviors among men who have sex with men in Langfang, China
Guo, W; Wu, ZY; Song, AJ; Poundstone, K
Chinese Medical Journal, 126(7): 1257-1263.
10.3760/cma.j.issn.0366-6999.20121721
CrossRef
International Journal of Std & AIDS
HIV testing rate in the top end of the Northern Territory of Australia: room for improvement
Mattison, G; Krause, V; Su, JY; Broadfoot, J; Ryder, N
International Journal of Std & AIDS, 23(): 862-864.
10.1258/ijsa.2012.012021
CrossRef
Bmc Public Health
Home-based HIV counseling and testing: Client experiences and perceptions in Eastern Uganda
Kyaddondo, D; Wanyenze, RK; Kinsman, J; Hardon, A
Bmc Public Health, 12(): -.
ARTN 966
CrossRef
Plos One
Changes in Sexual Behaviors among HIV-Infected Individuals after Their HIV Diagnosis in a Rural Prefecture of Eastern China
Lin, HJ; Ding, YY; Liu, X; Zhu, WM; Gao, MY; He, N
Plos One, 8(3): -.
ARTN e59575
CrossRef
Plos One
Willingness to Use the Internet to Seek Information on HIV Prevention and Care among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Justumus, P; Colby, D; Anh, TMD; Balestre, E; Becquet, R; Orne-Gliemann, J
Plos One, 8(8): -.
ARTN e71471
CrossRef
Primary Care
Management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Primary Care
Sell, JK
Primary Care, 40(3): 589-+.
10.1016/j.pop.2013.05.002
CrossRef
Psychology Health & Medicine
HIV-infected men who have sex with men who engage in very high levels of transmission risk behaviors: Establishing a context for novel prevention interventions
Taylor, SW; O'Cleirigh, C; Mayer, KH; Safren, SA
Psychology Health & Medicine, 18(5): 576-587.
10.1080/13548506.2012.756537
CrossRef
Bmc Oral Health
Feasibility of implementing rapid oral fluid HIV testing in an urban University Dental Clinic: a qualitative study
Hutchinson, MK; VanDevanter, N; Phelan, J; Malamud, D; Vernillo, A; Combellick, J; Shelley, D
Bmc Oral Health, 12(): -.
ARTN 11
CrossRef
Archives of Sexual Behavior
Differences Between HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative African American Men Who Have Sex with Men in Two Major U.S. Metropolitan Areas
Robinson, BE; Galbraith, JS; Romine, RES; Zhang, Q; Herbst, JH
Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42(2): 267-278.
10.1007/s10508-011-9891-5
CrossRef
Public Health Reports
HIV Screening Practices and Hospital Characteristics in the US, 2009-2010
Herrin, J; Wesolowski, LG; Heffelfinger, JD; Bostick, N; Hall, HI; Ethridge, SF; Branson, BM
Public Health Reports, 128(3): 161-169.

Sexually Transmitted Infections
HIV intertest interval among MSM in King County, Washington
Katz, DA; Dombrowski, JC; Swanson, F; Buskin, SE; Golden, MR; Stekler, JD
Sexually Transmitted Infections, 89(1): 32-37.
10.1136/sextrans-2011-050470
CrossRef
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
The Effect of Educational Attainment on HIV Testing Among African Americans
Onyeabor, OS; Iriemenam, N; Adekeye, OA; Rachel, SA
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 24(3): 1247-1256.

Plos One
Towards Estimation of HIV-1 Date of Infection: A Time-Continuous IgG-Model Shows That Seroconversion Does Not Occur at the Midpoint between Negative and Positive Tests
Skar, H; Albert, J; Leitner, T
Plos One, 8(4): -.
ARTN e60906
CrossRef
Plos One
Expanding Access to Non-Medicalized Community-Based Rapid Testing to Men Who Have Sex with Men: An Urgent HIV Prevention Intervention (The ANRS-DRAG Study)
Lorente, N; Preau, M; Vernay-Vaisse, C; Mora, M; Blanche, J; Otis, J; Passeron, A; Le Gall, JM; Dhotte, P; Carrieri, MP; Suzan-Monti, M; Spire, B
Plos One, 8(4): -.
ARTN e61225
CrossRef
Health Psychology
Project Enhance: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Individualized HIV Prevention Intervention for HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men Conducted in a Primary Care Setting
Safren, SA; O'Cleirigh, CM; Skeer, M; Elsesser, SA; Mayer, KH
Health Psychology, 32(2): 171-179.
10.1037/a0028581
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Trends in the Spectrum of Engagement in HIV Care and Subsequent Clinical Outcomes Among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) at a Boston Community Health Center
Axelrad, JE; Mimiaga, MJ; Grasso, C; Mayer, KH
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 27(5): 287-296.
10.1089/apc.2012.0471
CrossRef
Critical Public Health
Sexual practices and STI/HIV testing among gay, bisexual, and men who have sex with men in Ottawa, Canada: examining nondisclosure prosecutions and HIV prevention
O'Byrne, P; Bryan, A; Roy, M
Critical Public Health, 23(2): 225-236.
10.1080/09581596.2012.752070
CrossRef
Plos One
Changes in Seroadaptive Practices from before to after Diagnosis of Recent HIV Infection among Men Who Have Sex with Men
Vallabhaneni, S; McConnell, JJ; Loeb, L; Hartogensis, W; Hecht, FM; Grant, RM; Pilcher, CD
Plos One, 8(2): -.
ARTN e55397
CrossRef
Behavioral Medicine
Factors Associated with HIV-Testing History among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men (BMSM) in Los Angeles County
Washington, TA; Robles, G; Malotte, K
Behavioral Medicine, 39(3): 52-59.
10.1080/08964289.2013.779565
CrossRef
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Acute HIV-1 Infection in the Southeastern United States: A Cohort Study
McKellar, MS; Cope, AB; Gay, CL; McGee, KS; Kuruc, JD; Kerkau, MG; Hurt, CB; Fiscus, SA; Ferrari, G; Margolis, DM; Eron, JJ; Hicks, CB
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 29(1): 121-128.
10.1089/aid.2012.0064
CrossRef
Sexually Transmitted Infections
ru2hot?: A public health education campaign for men who have sex with men to increase awareness of symptoms of acute HIV infection
Stekler, JD; Baldwin, HD; Louella, MW; Katz, DA; Golden, MR
Sexually Transmitted Infections, 89(5): 409-414.
10.1136/sextrans-2012-050730
CrossRef
Atencion Primaria
Early detection of HIV infection in a Primary Care setting
Agusti, C; Mascort, J; Carrillo, R; Casabona, J
Atencion Primaria, 44(): 689-690.
10.1016/j.aprim.2012.11.001
CrossRef
Academic Emergency Medicine
Understanding HIV Screening in the Emergency Department: Is Perception Reality?
Haukoos, JS; Hopkins, E
Academic Emergency Medicine, 20(3): 309-312.
10.1111/acem.12082
CrossRef
Bmc Public Health
Voluntary HIV testing and risky sexual behaviours among health care workers: a survey in rural and urban Burkina Faso
Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, F; Yaro, S; Deccache, A; Fao, P; Defer, MC; Meda, N; Robert, A; Nagot, N
Bmc Public Health, 13(): -.
ARTN 540
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Diagnosing HIV Infection in Primary Care Settings: Missed Opportunities
Chin, T; Hicks, C; Samsa, G; McKellar, M
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 27(7): 392-397.
10.1089/apc.2013.0099
CrossRef
AIDS and Behavior
Does Effective Depression Treatment Alone Reduce Secondary HIV Transmission Risk? Equivocal Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial
Tsai, AC; Mimiaga, MJ; Dilley, JW; Hammer, GP; Karasic, DH; Charlebois, ED; Sorensen, JL; Safren, SA; Bangsberg, DR
AIDS and Behavior, 17(8): 2765-2772.
10.1007/s10461-013-0600-3
CrossRef
Mmwr-Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
HIV Infection Among Heterosexuals at Increased Risk - United States, 2010
Miles, IJ; Le, BC; Wejnert, C; Oster, A; DiNenno, E; Paz-Bailey, G
Mmwr-Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 62(): 183-188.

Plos One
Estimating the Impact of State Budget Cuts and Redirection of Prevention Resources on the HIV Epidemic in 59 California Local Health Departments
Lin, F; Lasry, A; Sansom, SL; Wolitski, RJ
Plos One, 8(3): -.
ARTN e55713
CrossRef
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association
Time for Oncologists to Opt In for Routine Opt-Out HIV Testing?
Chiao, EY; Dezube, BJ; Krown, SE; Wachsman, W; Brock, MV; Giordano, TP; Mitsuyasu, R; Pantanowitz, L
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 304(3): 334-339.

AIDS and Behavior
The Associations of Voluntary Counseling and Testing Acceptance and the Perceived Likelihood of Being HIV-Infected Among Men with Multiple Sex Partners in a South African Township
Johnston, L; O'Bra, H; Chopra, M; Mathews, C; Townsend, L; Sabin, K; Tomlinson, M; Kendall, C
AIDS and Behavior, 14(4): 922-931.
10.1007/s10461-008-9362-8
CrossRef
AIDS and Behavior
High HIV Prevalence, Suboptimal HIV Testing, and Low Knowledge of HIV-Positive Serostatus Among Injection Drug Users in St. Petersburg, Russia
Niccolai, LM; Toussova, OV; Verevochkin, SV; Barbour, R; Heimer, R; Kozlov, AP
AIDS and Behavior, 14(4): 932-941.
10.1007/s10461-008-9469-y
CrossRef
Journal of Urban Health-Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Why the Wait? Delayed HIV Diagnosis among Men Who Have Sex with Men
Nelson, KM; Thiede, H; Hawes, SE; Golden, MR; Hutcheson, R; Carey, JW; Kurth, A; Jenkins, RA
Journal of Urban Health-Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 87(4): 642-655.
10.1007/s11524-010-9434-8
CrossRef
Journal of the International AIDS Society
Priority interventions to reduce HIV transmission in sex work settings in sub-Saharan Africa and delivery of these services
Chersich, MF; Luchters, S; Ntaganira, I; Gerbase, A; Lo, YR; Scorgie, F; Steen, R
Journal of the International AIDS Society, 16(): -.
ARTN 17980
CrossRef
AIDS and Behavior
Do Safer Sex Self-Efficacy, Attitudes toward Condoms, and HIV Transmission Risk Beliefs Differ among Men who Have Sex with Men, Heterosexual Men, and Women Living with HIV?
Widman, L; Golin, CE; Grodensky, CA; Suchindran, C
AIDS and Behavior, 17(5): 1873-1882.
10.1007/s10461-011-0108-7
CrossRef
Global Public Health
What's God got to do with it? Engaging African-American faith-based institutions in HIV prevention
Nunn, A; Cornwall, A; Thomas, G; Callahan, PL; Waller, PA; Friend, R; Broadnax, PJ; Flanigan, T
Global Public Health, 8(3): 258-269.
10.1080/17441692.2012.759608
CrossRef
Plos One
Screening for Drug and Alcohol Use Disorders and Their Association with HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviors among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Peru
Ludford, KT; Vagenas, P; Lama, JR; Peinado, J; Gonzales, P; Leiva, R; Pun, M; Sanchez, J; Altice, FL
Plos One, 8(8): -.
ARTN e69966
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Healthcare Provider Attitudes, Practices, and Recommendations for Enhancing Routine HIV Testing and Linkage to Care in the Mississippi Delta Region
Sison, N; Yolken, A; Poceta, J; Mena, L; Chan, PA; Barnes, A; Smith, E; Nunn, A
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 27(9): 511-517.
10.1089/apc.2013.0169
CrossRef
Indian Journal of Medical Research
Factors associated with ever HIV testing among injecting drug users (IDUs) in two HIV high prevalent States of India
Medhi, GK; Mahanta, J; Paranjape, RS; Adhikary, R; Singh, SG; Akoijam, SB; Goswami, P
Indian Journal of Medical Research, 136(): 64-71.

AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy is Associated with Decreased Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in a Taiwanese HIV-Positive Population
Cheng, SH; Yang, CH; Hsueh, YM
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 27(3): 155-162.
10.1089/apc.2012.0385
CrossRef
Plos One
Willingness to Use the Oral Fluid HIV Rapid Test among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China
Xu, YN; Zhang, Z; Li, DL; Liu, YJ; Pan, SW; Qi, X; Wang, B; Luo, FJ; Xiao, D; Shao, YM; Ruan, YH
Plos One, 8(5): -.
ARTN e64652
CrossRef
Public Health Reports
Receipt and Use of Free Condoms Among US Men Who Have Sex with Men
Khosropour, C; Sullivan, PS
Public Health Reports, 128(5): 43-50.

Internal Medicine Journal
Late diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection in patients with viral hepatitis
Hunter, M; Clezy, K; Hajkowicz, KM; Hoy, JF; Hume, S; O'Sullivan, MVN; Runnegar, N; Sasadeusz, J; Post, JJ
Internal Medicine Journal, 43(6): 732-734.
10.1111/imj.12160
CrossRef
Journal of Health Psychology
When do condom use intentions lead to actions? Examining the role of sexual communication on safer sexual behavior among people living with HIV
Widman, L; Golin, CE; Noar, SM
Journal of Health Psychology, 18(4): 507-517.
10.1177/1359105312446769
CrossRef
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Test-and-Treat in Los Angeles: A Mathematical Model of the Effects of Test-and-Treat for the Population of Men Who Have Sex With Men in Los Angeles County
Sood, N; Wagner, Z; Jaycocks, A; Drabo, E; Vardavas, R
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 56(): 1789-1796.
10.1093/cid/cit158
CrossRef
American Journal of Mens Health
Determinants of Previous HIV Testing and Knowledge of Partner's HIV Status Among Men Attending a Voluntary Counseling and Testing Clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Conserve, D; Sevilla, L; Mbwambo, J; King, G
American Journal of Mens Health, 7(6): 450-460.
10.1177/1557988312468146
CrossRef
Bmc Public Health
Older HIV-infected individuals present late and have a higher mortality: Brighton, UK cohort study
Iwuji, CC; Churchill, D; Gilleece, Y; Weiss, HA; Fisher, M
Bmc Public Health, 13(): -.
ARTN 397
CrossRef
Plos One
Routine HIV Testing among Providers of HIV Care in the United States, 2009
McNaghten, AD; Valverde, EE; Blair, JM; Johnson, CH; Freedman, MS; Sullivan, PS
Plos One, 8(1): -.
ARTN e51231
CrossRef
Revista Medica De Chile
Identification of educational needs among patients with HIV and their health care providers
Araya, A; Carrasco, P; Loayza, C; Fernandez, AM; Perez, C; Lasso, M
Revista Medica De Chile, 141(5): 582-588.

2011 Ieee Congress on Evolutionary Computation (Cec)
Modeling HIV Spread Through Sexual Contact Using a Cellular Automaton
Alimadad, A; Dabbaghian, V; Singhk, SK; Tsang, HH
2011 Ieee Congress on Evolutionary Computation (Cec), (): 2345-2350.

Journal of the American Dental Association
The role of the dental profession in addressing the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic
Abel, SN; Shah, S
Journal of the American Dental Association, 144(): 1104-1108.

Sexual Health
Increases in newly acquired HIV infections in Victoria, Australia: epidemiological evidence of successful prevention?
Feigin, A; El-Hayek, C; Hellard, M; Pedrana, A; Donnan, E; Fairley, C; Tee, BK; Stoove, M
Sexual Health, 10(2): 166-170.
10.1071/SH12064
CrossRef
Development Policy Review
Are people aware of their HIV-positive status responsible for driving the epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa? The case of Malawi
Morah, EU
Development Policy Review, 25(2): 215-242.

Lancet
Routine opt-out HIV testing
Lifson, AR; Rybicki, SL
Lancet, 369(): 539-540.

Southern African Journal of Hiv Medicine
Increasing the scope and intensity of interventions to prevent HIV infection in infants: Best interests of women and children
Chersich, MF; Luchters, SMF; Tennnerman, M
Southern African Journal of Hiv Medicine, (): 15-18.

AIDS and Behavior
Factors associated with sexual risk behavior among persons living with HIV: Gender and sexual identity group differences
Courtenay-Quirk, C; Pals, SL; Colfax, G; McKirnan, D; Gooden, L; Eroglu, D
AIDS and Behavior, 12(5): 685-694.
10.1007/s10461-007-9259-y
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Safer sexual behaviors after 12 months of antiretroviral treatment in Mombasa, Kenya: A prospective cohort
Luchters, S; Sarna, A; Geibel, S; Chersich, MF; Munyao, P; Kaai, S; Mandaliya, KN; Shikely, KS; Rutenberg, N; Temmerman, M
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 22(7): 587-594.
10.1089/apc.2007.0247
CrossRef
Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Increasing Knowledge of HIV Infection Status through Opt-Out Testing
Jaffe, HW
Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, 6(2): 229-233.
10.1007/s11673-009-9147-4
CrossRef
International Journal of Std & AIDS
Can a clinical prediction tool guide HIV-testing decisions? Experience at a national hospital in Guatemala
Anderson, MR; Samayoa, B; O'Sullivan, LF; Fletcher, J; Arathoon, E
International Journal of Std & AIDS, 20(1): 30-34.
10.1258/ijsa.2008.008223
CrossRef
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
No increase in HIV or sexually transmissible infection testing following a social marketing campaign among men who have sex with men
Guy, R; Goller, J; Leslie, D; Thorpe, R; Grierson, J; Batrouney, C; Kennedy, M; Lewis, J; Fairley, C; Ginige, S; Zablotska, I; Hellard, M
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 63(5): 391-396.
10.1136/jech.2008.077099
CrossRef
Archives of Internal Medicine
HIV/AIDS 2010 Better Drugs, Better Technologies, and Lingering Problems
Katz, MH
Archives of Internal Medicine, 170(1): 6-8.

Addiction
Contingency management reduces drug-related human immunodeficiency virus risk behaviors in cocaine-abusing methadone patients
Hanson, T; Alessi, SM; Petry, NM
Addiction, 103(7): 1187-1197.
10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02216.x
CrossRef
Journal of General Internal Medicine
A system-wide intervention to improve HIV testing in the Veterans Health Administration
Goetz, MB; Hoang, T; Bowman, C; Knapp, H; Rossman, B; Smith, R; Anaya, H; Osborn, T; Gifford, AL; Asch, SM
Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23(8): 1200-1207.
10.1007/s11606-008-0637-6
CrossRef
American Journal of Public Health
New York City's diabetes reporting system helps patients and physicians
Frieden, TR
American Journal of Public Health, 98(9): 1543-1544.
10.2105/AJPH.2008.142026
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
HIV screening among US physicians, 1999-2000
Bernstein, KT; Begier, E; Burke, R; Karpati, A; Hogben, M
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 22(8): 649-656.
10.1089/apc.2007.0261
CrossRef
Public Health Reports
Comparing the Costs of HIV Screening Strategies and Technologies in Health-Care Settings
Farnham, PG; Hutchinson, AB; Sansom, SL; Branson, BM
Public Health Reports, 123(): 51-62.

International Journal of Std & AIDS
Thought processes associated with reluctance in gay men to be tested for HIV
Gold, RS; Karantzas, G
International Journal of Std & AIDS, 19(): 775-779.
10.1258/ijsa.2008.008228
CrossRef
AIDS and Behavior
Reducing HIV transmission risk by increasing serostatus disclosure: A mathematical modeling analysis
Pinkerton, SD; Galletly, CL
AIDS and Behavior, 11(5): 698-705.
10.1007/s10461-006-9187-2
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Outcomes of blood and oral fluid rapid HIV testing: A literature review, 2000-2006
Roberts, KJ; Grusky, O; Swanson, AN
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 21(9): 621-637.
10.1089/apc.2006.0196
CrossRef
AIDS Reader
Costs of HIV care: Evolution and update
Valenti, WM
AIDS Reader, 17(5): 242-244.

AIDS
Why don't physicians test for HIV? A review of the US literature
Burke, RC; Sepkowitz, KA; Bernstein, KT; Karpati, AM; Myers, JE; Tsoi, BW; Begier, EM
AIDS, 21(): 1617-1624.

Sexual Health
Using mathematical modelling to help explain the differential increase in HIV incidence in New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland: importance of other sexually transmissible infections
Hoare, A; Wilson, DP; Regan, DG; Kaldor, J; Law, MG
Sexual Health, 5(2): 169-187.
10.1071/SH07099
CrossRef
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association
Estimation of HIV incidence in the United States
Hall, HI; Song, RG; Rhodes, P; Prejean, J; An, Q; Lee, LM; Karon, J; Brookmeyer, R; Kaplan, EH; McKenna, MT; Janssen, RS
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 300(5): 520-529.

Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Women Undergoing Treatment for Cervical Neoplasia: Prevalence and the Feasibility of Routine Screening
Kietpeerakool, C
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 9(1): 36-38.

Thorax
HIV prevalence and testing practices among tuberculosis cases in London: a missed opportunity for HIV diagnosis?
Rodger, AJ; Story, A; Fox, Z; Hayward, A
Thorax, 65(1): 63-69.
10.1136/thx.2009.122754
CrossRef
Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Claiming HIV Infection From Improbable Modes as a Possible Coping Strategy
Moskowitz, DA
Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40(2): 311-324.

AIDS
Determinants of HIV-1 transmission in men who have sex with men: a combined clinical, epidemiological and phylogenetic approach
Fisher, M; Pao, D; Brown, AE; Sudarshi, D; Gill, ON; Cane, P; Buckton, AJ; Parry, JV; Johnson, AM; Sabin, C; Pillay, D
AIDS, 24(): 1739-1747.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e32833ac9c6
CrossRef
Samj South African Medical Journal
Is it time to change our HIV testing policy in health care facilities?
Bekker, LG; Wood, R
Samj South African Medical Journal, 96(): 1235-1236.

Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
HIV screening for all: The new standard of care
Armstrong, WS; Taege, AJ
Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 74(4): 297-301.

Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care
Changes in Transmission Risk Behaviors Across Stages of HIV Disease Among People Living With HIV
Eaton, LA; Kalichman, SC
Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 20(1): 39-49.
10.1016/j.jana.2008.10.005
CrossRef
American Journal of Public Health
Accessing Social Networks With High Rates of Undiagnosed HIV Infection: The Social Networks Demonstration Project
Kimbrough, LW; Fisher, HE; Jones, KT; Johnson, W; Thadiparthi, S; Dooley, S
American Journal of Public Health, 99(6): 1093-1099.
10.2105/AJPH.2008.139329
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Influencing Risk Behavior of Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic Visitors: Efficacy of a New Methodology of Motivational Preventive Counseling
Kuyper, L; de Wit, J; Heijman, T; Fennema, H; van Bergen, J; Vanwesenbeeck, I
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 23(6): 423-431.
10.1089/apc.2008.0144
CrossRef
AIDS and Behavior
Understanding Differences in HIV Sexual Transmission among Latino and Black Men who have Sex with Men: The Brothers y Hermanos Study
Marks, G; Millett, GA; Bingham, T; Bond, L; Lauby, J; Liau, A; Murrill, CS; Stueve, A
AIDS and Behavior, 13(4): 682-690.
10.1007/s10461-008-9380-6
CrossRef
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Serosorting for hepatitis C status in the sharing of injection equipment among Seattle area injection drug users
Burt, RD; Thiede, H; Hagan, H
Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 105(3): 215-220.
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.07.005
CrossRef
Archives of Internal Medicine
Detecting Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Using 3 Different Screening Immunoassays and Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus RNA, 2006-2008
Patel, P; Mackellar, D; Simmons, P; Uniyal, A; Gallagher, K; Bennett, B; Sullivan, TJ; Kowalski, A; Parker, MM; LaLota, M; Kerndt, P; Sullivan, PS
Archives of Internal Medicine, 170(1): 66-74.

Journal of Medical Virology
Current HIV epidemiology and revised recommendations for HIV testing in health-care settings
Branson, B
Journal of Medical Virology, 79(): S6-S10.
10.1002/jmv.20972
CrossRef
Gender Medicine
Gender differences in the diagnosis and treatment of HIV
Squires, KE
Gender Medicine, 4(4): 294-307.

American Journal of Public Health
HIV prevalence and associated risk behaviors in New York City's house ball community
Murrill, CS; Liu, KL; Guilin, V; Colon, ER; Dean, L; Buckley, LA; Sanchez, T; Finlayson, TJ; Torian, LV
American Journal of Public Health, 98(6): 1074-1080.
10.2105/AJPH.2006.108936
CrossRef
AIDS Reader
Acute retroviral syndrome: A challenge for primary care
Valenti, WM
AIDS Reader, 18(6): 294-296.

Lancet
Relation between HIV viral load and infectiousness: a model-based analysis
Wilson, DP; Law, MG; Grulich, AE; Cooper, DA; Kaldor, JM
Lancet, 372(): 314-320.

Archivos Argentinos De Pediatria
The pediatrician in AIDS epoch - 20 years later
de Schiavi, DMSR
Archivos Argentinos De Pediatria, 105(5): 387-389.

American Journal of Public Health
Determinants of Recent HIV Infection Among Seattle-Area Men Who Have Sex with Men
Thiede, H; Jenkins, RA; Carey, JW; Hutcheson, R; Thomas, KK; Stall, RD; White, E; Allen, I; Mejia, R; Golden, MR
American Journal of Public Health, 99(): S157-S164.
10.2105/AJPH.2006.098582
CrossRef
Academic Emergency Medicine
Acceptance of Rapid HIV Screening in a Southeastern Emergency Department
Freeman, AE; Sattin, RW; Miller, KM; Dias, JK; Wilde, JA
Academic Emergency Medicine, 16(): 1156-1164.
10.1111/j.1553-2712.2009.00508.x
CrossRef
AIDS
Sexual behaviour of people living with HIV in London: implications for HIV transmission
Elford, J; Ibrahim, F; Bukutu, C; Anderson, J
AIDS, 21(): S63-S70.

AIDS
How many sexually-acquired HIV infections in the USA are due to acute-phase HIV transmission?
Pinkerton, SD
AIDS, 21(): 1625-1629.

American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Partner notification - A promising approach to addressing the HIV/AIDS racial disparity in the united states
Kissinger, P; Malebranche, D
American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33(2): S86-S87.
10.1016/j.amepre.2007.04.019
CrossRef
Journal of Medical Virology
Early diagnosis of HIV infection
Devare, SG
Journal of Medical Virology, 79(): S11-S15.
10.1002/jmv.20967
CrossRef
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Evidence-based efforts to prevent HIV infection: An overview of current status and future challenges
Holtgrave, D
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 45(): S293-S299.
10.1086/522553
CrossRef
Sahara J-Journal of Social Aspects of Hiv-AIDS
Provider-initiated HIV testing in health care settings: Should it include client-centered counselling?
Kiene, SM; Bateganya, M; Wanyenze, R; Lule, H; Mayer, K; Stein, M
Sahara J-Journal of Social Aspects of Hiv-AIDS, 6(3): 115-119.

Implementation Science
The impact of provider-initiated (opt-out) HIV testing and counseling of patients with sexually transmitted infection in Cape Town, South Africa: a controlled trial
Leon, N; Naidoo, P; Mathews, C; Lewin, S; Lombard, C
Implementation Science, 5(): -.
ARTN 8
CrossRef
AIDS and Behavior
Provider-related Barriers to Rapid HIV Testing in US Urban Non-profit Community Clinics, Community-based Organizations (CBOs) and Hospitals
Bogart, LM; Howerton, D; Lange, J; Setodji, CM; Becker, K; Klein, DJ; Asch, SM
AIDS and Behavior, 14(3): 697-707.
10.1007/s10461-008-9456-3
CrossRef
American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Partner counseling and referral services for HIV infection
Dooley, SW; Douglas, JM; Janssen, RS
American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33(2): S81-S83.
10.1016/j.amepre.2007.04.020
CrossRef
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association
The reemerging HIV/AIDS epidemic in men who have sex with men
Jaffe, HW; Valdiserri, RO; De Cock, KM
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 298(): 2412-2414.

AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Description of a novel pediatric emergency department-based HIV screening program for adolescents
Mollen, C; Lavelle, J; Hawkins, L; Ambrose, C; Ruby, B
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 22(6): 505-512.
10.1089/apc.2007.0098
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
HIV Testing Factors Associated with Delayed Entry into HIV Medical Care among HIV-Infected Persons from Eighteen States, United States, 2000-2004
Reed, JB; Hanson, D; McNaghten, AD; Bertolli, J; Teshale, E; Gardner, L; Sullivan, P
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 23(9): 765-773.
10.1089/apc.2008.0213
CrossRef
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics
Knowledge, awareness, and attitudes of female sex workers toward HPV infection, cervical cancer, and cervical smears in Thailand
Kietpeerakool, C; Phianmongkhol, Y; Jitvatcharanun, K; Siriratwatakul, U; Srisomboon, J
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 107(3): 216-219.
10.1016/j.ijgo.2009.07.023
CrossRef
AIDS and Behavior
Intentional Abstinence Among Homeless and Unstably Housed Persons Living with HIV/AIDS
Courtenay-Quirk, C; Zhang, J; Wolitski, RJ
AIDS and Behavior, 13(6): 1119-1128.
10.1007/s10461-008-9461-6
CrossRef
Substance Use & Misuse
Behavior change and health-related interventions for heterosexual risk reduction among drug users
Semaan, S; Jarlais, DCD; Malow, R
Substance Use & Misuse, 41(): 1349-1378.
10.1080/10826080600838018
CrossRef
Pediatric Annals
Hot topics in pediatric HIV/AIDS
Alvarez, AM; Rathore, MH
Pediatric Annals, 36(7): 423-432.

Hiv Medicine
Diagnosed and undiagnosed HIV-infected populations in Europe
Hamers, FF; Phillips, AN
Hiv Medicine, 9(): 6-12.
10.1111/j.1468-1293.2008.00584.x
CrossRef
Sexual Health
Importance of promoting HIV testing for preventing secondary transmissions: modelling the Australian HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men
Wilson, DP; Hoare, A; Regan, DG; Law, MG
Sexual Health, 6(1): 19-33.
10.1071/SH08081
CrossRef
Cadernos De Saude Publica
Initiation of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients with severe immunodeficiency in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil
Fernandes, JRM; Acurcio, FD; Campos, LN; Guimaraes, MDC
Cadernos De Saude Publica, 25(6): 1369-1380.

AIDS and Behavior
Use of a Rapid HIV Home Test to Screen Sexual Partners: An Evaluation of its Possible Use and Relative Risk
Ventuneac, A; Carballo-Dieguez, A; Leu, CS; Levin, B; Bauermeister, J; Woodman-Maynard, E; Giguere, R
AIDS and Behavior, 13(4): 731-737.
10.1007/s10461-009-9565-7
CrossRef
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
HIV screening among substance-abusing veterans in care
Dookeran, NM; Burgess, JF; Bowman, CC; Goetz, MB; Asch, SM; Gifford, AL
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 37(3): 286-291.
10.1016/j.jsat.2009.03.003
CrossRef
Journal of General Internal Medicine
Evaluation of the Sustainability of an Intervention to Increase HIV Testing
Goetz, MB; Hoang, T; Henry, SR; Knapp, H; Anaya, HD; Gifford, AL; Asch, SM
Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(): 1275-1280.
10.1007/s11606-009-1120-8
CrossRef
AIDS
Mainstrearning HIV testing
Rietmeijer, CA; Thrun, MW
AIDS, 20(): 1667-1668.

Journal of General Internal Medicine
HIV testing of at risk patients in a large integrated health care system
Owens, DK; Sundaram, V; Lazzeroni, LC; Douglass, LR; Tempio, P; Holodniy, M; Sanders, GD; Shadle, VM; McWhorter, VC; Agoncillo, T; Haren, N; Chavis, D; Borowsky, LH; Yano, EM; Jensen, P; Simberkoff, MS; Bozzette, SA
Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(3): 315-320.
10.1007/s11606-006-0028-9
CrossRef
Bmc Health Services Research
A novel emergency department based prevention intervention program for people living with HIV: evaluation of early experiences
Lyons, MS; Raab, DL; Lindsell, CJ; Trott, AT; Fichtenbaum, CJ
Bmc Health Services Research, 7(): -.
ARTN 164
CrossRef
Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care
HIV testing in emergency departments: A recommendation with missed opportunities
Hardwicke, R; Malecha, A; Lewis, ST; Grimes, RM
Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 19(3): 211-218.
10.1016/j.jana.2008.03.005
CrossRef
AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/Hiv
Barriers and facilitators to HIV testing and linkage to primary care: narratives of people with advanced HIV in the Southeast
McCoy, SI; Miller, WC; MacDonald, PDM; Hurt, CB; Leone, PA; Eron, JJ; Strauss, RP
AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/Hiv, 21(): 1313-1320.
10.1080/09540120902803174
CrossRef
AIDS and Behavior
Psychosocial Characteristics and Sexual Behaviors of People in Care for HIV Infection: An Examination of Men Who Have Sex with Men, Heterosexual Men and Women
Golin, C; Marks, G; Wright, J; Gerkovich, M; Tien, HC; Patel, SN; Gardner, L; O'Daniels, C; Wilson, TE; Thrun, M; Thompson, M; Raffanti, S; Quinlivan, EB
AIDS and Behavior, 13(6): 1129-1142.
10.1007/s10461-009-9613-3
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Initial Outcomes of Provider-Initiated Routine HIV Testing and Counseling During Outpatient Care at a Rural Ugandan Hospital: Risky Sexual Behavior, Partner HIV Testing, Disclosure, and HIV Care Seeking
Kiene, SM; Bateganya, M; Wanyenze, R; Lule, H; Nantaba, H; Stein, MD
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 24(2): 117-126.
10.1089/apc.2009.0269
CrossRef
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Addressing Research Priorities for Prevention of HIV Infection in the United States
Vermund, SH; Hodder, SL; Justman, JE; Koblin, BA; Mastro, TD; Mayer, KH; Wheeler, DP; El-Sadr, WM
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 50(): S149-S155.
10.1086/651485
CrossRef
American Journal of Preventive Medicine
The effectiveness of HIV partner counseling and referral services in increasing identification of HIV-positive individuals - A systematic review
Hogben, M; McNally, T; McPheeters, M; Hutchinson, AB
American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33(2): S89-S100.
10.1016/j.amepre.2007.04.015
CrossRef
American Journal of Public Health
The magnitude of key HIV prevention challenges in the United States: Implications for a new national HIV prevention plan
Holtgrave, DR; McGuire, JF; Milan, J
American Journal of Public Health, 97(7): 1163-1167.
10.2105/AJPH.2006.095182
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Knowledge of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2006 Routine HIV Testing Recommendations among New York City Internal Medicine Residents
Jain, CL; Wyatt, CM; Burke, R; Sepkowitz, K; Begier, EM
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 23(3): 167-176.
10.1089/apc.2008.0130
CrossRef
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Twenty-Five Years of HIV: Lessons for Low Prevalence Scenarios
Sawires, S; Birnbaum, N; Abu-Raddad, L; Szekeres, G; Gayle, J
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 51(): S75-S82.

Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
The Past, Present, and Future of HIV Prevention: Integrating Behavioral, Biomedical, and Structural Intervention Strategies for the Next Generation of HIV Prevention
Rotheram-Borus, MJ; Swendeman, D; Chovnick, G
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 5(): 143-167.
10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.032408.153530
CrossRef
International Journal of Std & AIDS
2008 European Guideline on HIV testing
Poljak, M; Smit, E; Ross, J
International Journal of Std & AIDS, 20(2): 77-83.
10.1258/ijsa.2008.008438
CrossRef
Sexual Health
Delayed diagnosis of HIV infection in Victoria 1994 to 2006
Lemoh, C; Guy, R; Yohannes, K; Lewis, J; Street, A; Biggs, B; Hellard, M
Sexual Health, 6(2): 117-122.
10.1071/SH08028
CrossRef
Ajar-African Journal of AIDS Research
HIV behavioural surveillance among refugees and surrounding host communities in Uganda, 2006
Harrison, KM; Claass, J; Spiegel, PB; Bamuturaki, J; Patterson, N; Muyonga, M; Tatwebwa, L
Ajar-African Journal of AIDS Research, 8(1): 29-41.
10.2989/AJAR.2009.8.1.4.717
CrossRef
AIDS and Behavior
Transgender Female Youth and Sex Work: HIV Risk and a Comparison of Life Factors Related to Engagement in Sex Work
Wilson, EC; Garofalo, R; Harris, RD; Herrick, A; Martinez, M; Martinez, J; Belzer, M
AIDS and Behavior, 13(5): 902-913.
10.1007/s10461-008-9508-8
CrossRef
AIDS and Behavior
Strategies Used in the Detection of Acute/Early HIV Infections. The NIMH Multisite Acute HIV Infection Study: I
Kerndt, PR; Dubrow, R; Aynalem, G; Mayer, KH; Beckwith, C; Remien, RH; Truong, HHM; Uniyal, A; Chien, M; Brooks, RA; Vigil, OR; Steward, WT; Merson, M; Rotheram-Borus, MJ; Morin, SF
AIDS and Behavior, 13(6): 1037-1045.
10.1007/s10461-009-9580-8
CrossRef
Archives of Sexual Behavior
HIV and Sexual Risk Behavior among Commercial Sex Workers in the Netherlands
van Veen, MG; Gotz, HM; van Leeuwen, PA; Prins, M; van de Laar, MJW
Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39(3): 714-723.
10.1007/s10508-008-9396-z
CrossRef
Tropical Medicine & International Health
Adoption of safer infant feeding and postpartum sexual practices and their relationship to maternal HIV status and risk of acquiring HIV in Zimbabwe
Tavengwa, NV; Piwoz, EG; Iliff, PJ; Moulton, LH; Zunguza, CD; Nathoo, KJ; Hargrove, JW; Humphrey, JH
Tropical Medicine & International Health, 12(1): 97-106.
10.1111/j.1365-3156.2006.01758.x
CrossRef
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association
HIV/AIDS diagnoses among blacks - Florida, 1999-2004 (Reprinted from MMWR, vol 56, pg 69-73, 2007)
Lieb, S; LaLota, M; Liberti, T; Maddox, L; Thompson, D; Selik, R
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 297(): 1185-1186.

Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy
Beyond the end of exceptionalism: integrating HIV testing into routine medical care and HIV prevention
Smith, R; Zetolo, NM; Klousner, JD
Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy, 5(4): 581-589.
10.1586/14787210.5.4.581
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Patients' attitudes about rapid oral HIV screening in an urban, free dental clinic
Dietz, CA; Ablah, E; Reznik, D; Robbins, DK
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 22(3): 205-212.
10.1089/apc.2007.0235
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Implementation and evaluation of a clinic-based behavioral intervention: Positive steps for patients with HIV
Gardner, LI; Marks, G; O'Daniels, CM; Wilson, TE; Golin, C; Wright, J; Quinlivan, EB; Bradley-Springer, L; Thompson, M; Raffanti, S; Thrun, M
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 22(8): 627-635.
10.1089/apc.2007.0210
CrossRef
Bmc Infectious Diseases
HIV Testing and Care in Canadian Aboriginal Youth: A community based mixed methods study
Mill, JE; Jackson, RC; Worthington, CA; Archibald, CP; Wong, T; Myers, T; Prentice, T; Sommerfeldt, S
Bmc Infectious Diseases, 8(): -.
ARTN 132
CrossRef
Journal of Medical Screening
Comparison of emergency department HIV testing data with visit or patient as the unit of analysis
Lyons, MS; Lindsell, CJ; Raab, DL; Ruffner, AH; Trott, AT; Fichtenbaum, CJ
Journal of Medical Screening, 16(1): 29-32.
10.1258/jms.2009.008086
CrossRef
American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Written Informed-Consent Statutes and HIV Testing
Ehrenkranz, PD; Pagan, JA; Begier, EM; Linas, BP; Madison, K; Armstrong, K
American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 37(1): 57-63.
10.1016/j.amepre.2009.03.011
CrossRef
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Increasing the Reach of HIV Testing to Young Latino MSM: Results of a Pilot Study Integrating Outreach and Services
Erausquin, JT; Duan, NH; Grusky, O; Swanson, AN; Kerrone, D; Rudy, ET
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 20(3): 756-765.

Journal of Community Health
HIV Testing Practices and Attitudes on Prevention Efforts in Six Diverse Chicago Communities
Allgood, KL; Silva, A; Shah, A; Whitman, S
Journal of Community Health, 34(6): 514-522.
10.1007/s10900-009-9177-1
CrossRef
New England Journal of Medicine
Applying public health principles to the HIV epidemic
Frieden, TR; Das-Douglas, M; Kellerman, SE; Henning, KJ
New England Journal of Medicine, 353(): 2397-2402.

Annals of Internal Medicine
Expanded HIV screening in the United States: Effect on clinical outcomes, HIV transmission, and costs
Paltiel, AD; Walensky, RP; Schackman, BR; Seage, GR; Mercincavage, LM; Weinstein, MC; Freedberg, KA
Annals of Internal Medicine, 145(): 797-806.

New England Journal of Medicine
Public health principles for the HIV epidemic - Reply
Frieden, TR; Kellerman, SE; Das-Douglas, M
New England Journal of Medicine, 354(8): 878.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Impact of counseling in voluntary counseling and testing programs for persons at risk for or living with HIV infection
Holtgrave, D; McGuire, J
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 45(): S240-S243.
10.1086/522544
CrossRef
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling for TB patients and suspects in Nairobi, Kenya
Odhiambo, J; Kizito, W; Njoroge, A; Wambua, N; Nganga, L; Mburu, M; Mansoer, J; Marum, L; Phillips, E; Chakaya, J; De Cock, KM
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 12(3): S63-S68.

Bmc Public Health
Contributions to early HIV diagnosis among patients linked to care vary by testing venue
Lyons, MS; Lindsell, CJ; Hawkins, DA; Raab, DL; Trott, AT; Fichtenbaum, CJ
Bmc Public Health, 8(): -.
ARTN 220
CrossRef
Developing World Bioethics
Ethics of mandatory premarital HIV testing in Africa: The case of Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo
Rennie, S; Mupenda, B
Developing World Bioethics, 8(2): 126-137.
10.1111/j.1471-8847.2007.00199.x
CrossRef
Journal of Women & Aging
Theory-Based Policy Development for HIV Prevention in Racial/Ethnic Minority Midlife and Older Women
Jacobs, R; Kane, M
Journal of Women & Aging, 21(1): 19-32.
10.1080/08952840802633586
CrossRef
Public Health Reports
Written consent for human immunodeficiency virus testing
Myers, JE; Henning, KJ; Frieden, TR; Larson, K; Begier, B; Sepkowitz, KA
Public Health Reports, 122(4): 433-434.

Plos Medicine
Late HIV diagnosis: Bad medicine and worse public health
Valdiserri, RO
Plos Medicine, 4(6): 975-976.
ARTN e200
CrossRef
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Telephone notification of HIV test results: Impact in king County, Washington
Mckinstry, LA; Goldbaum, GM; Meischke, HW
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 34(): 796-800.
10.1097/01.olq.000261726.56859.5a
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Missed Opportunities for Earlier HIV Diagnosis in an Emergency Department Despite an HIV Screening Program
White, DAE; Warren, OU; Scribner, AN; Frazee, BW
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 23(4): 245-250.
10.1089/apc.2008.0198
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Sexual Risk Behavior and Behavior Change among Persons Newly Diagnosed with HIV: The Impact of Targeted Outreach Interventions among Hard-to-Reach Populations
Coleman, SM; Rajabiun, S; Cabral, HJ; Bradford, JB; Tobias, CR
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 23(8): 639-645.
10.1089/apc.2008.0092
CrossRef
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Late Presentation for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Care in the United States and Canada
Althoff, KN; Gange, SJ; Klein, MB; Brooks, JT; Hogg, RS; Bosch, RJ; Horberg, MA; Saag, MS; Kitahata, MM; Justice, AC; Gebo, KA; Eron, JJ; Rourke, SB; Gill, MJ; Rodriguez, B; Sterling, TR; Calzavara, LM; Deeks, SG; Martin, JN; Rachlis, AR; Napravnik, S; Jacobson, LP; Kirk, GD; Collier, AC; Benson, CA; Silverberg, MJ; Kushel, M; Goedert, JJ; McKaig, RG; Van Rompaey, SE; Zhang, JB; Moore, RD
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 50(): 1512-1520.
10.1086/652650
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
SafeTalk, a Multicomponent, Motivational Interviewing-Based, Safer Sex Counseling Program for People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Qualitative Assessment of Patients' Views
Golin, CE; Davis, RA; Przybyla, SM; Fowler, B; Parker, S; Earp, JA; Quinlivan, EB; Kalichman, SC; Patel, SN; Grodensky, CA
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 24(4): 237-245.
10.1089/apc.2009.0252
CrossRef
Population Studies-A Journal of Demography
The limited effect of knowing they are HIV-positive on the sexual and reproductive experiences and intentions of infected adolescents in Uganda
Obare, F; Birungi, H
Population Studies-A Journal of Demography, 64(1): 97-104.
10.1080/00324720903427575
CrossRef
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Changing epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in the United States: Implications for enhancing and promoting HIV testing strategies
Fenton, KA
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 45(): S213-S220.
10.1086/522615
CrossRef
Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care
"Universal Action-Now"
Bradley-Springer, L
Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 19(6): 409-411.
10.1016/j.jana.2008.09.001
CrossRef
Sexual Health
Time to roll out rapid testing for HIV? Yes, but with appropriate safeguards
Chen, MY; Estcourt, CS
Sexual Health, 6(1): 1-3.
10.1071/SH09008
CrossRef
Health Communication
Prevention Options for Positives: The Effects of a Health Communication Intervention for Men Who Have Sex With Men Living With HIV/AIDS
Lapinski, MK; Randall, LM; Peterson, M; Peterson, A; Klein, KA
Health Communication, 24(6): 562-571.
10.1080/10410230903104947
CrossRef
Psychological Medicine
HIV testing among individuals with a severe mental illness: review, suggestions for research, and clinical implications
Senn, TE; Carey, MP
Psychological Medicine, 39(3): 355-363.
10.1017/S0033291708003930
CrossRef
International Journal of Std & AIDS
Experience in the USA
Mayer, KH
International Journal of Std & AIDS, 20(): 2-6.
10.1258/ijsa.2008.08s201
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Risk-Based HIV Testing in South Carolina Health Care Settings Failed to Identify the Majority of Infected Individuals
Duffus, WA; Weis, K; Kettinger, L; Stephens, T; Albrecht, H; Gibson, JJ
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 23(5): 339-345.
10.1089/apc.2008.0193
CrossRef
American Family Physician
Applying HIV Testing Guidelines in Clinical Practice
Mahoney, MR; Fogler, J; Weber, S; Goldschmidt, RH
American Family Physician, 80(): 1441-1444.

International Journal of Drug Policy
HIV infection and risk behaviour of primary fentanyl and amphetamine injectors in Tallinn, Estonia: Implications for intervention
Talu, A; Rajaleid, K; Abel-Ollo, K; Ruutel, K; Rahu, M; Rhodes, T; Platt, L; Bobrova, N; Uuskula, A
International Journal of Drug Policy, 21(1): 56-63.
10.1016/j.drugpo.2009.02.007
CrossRef
Addiction
Next Steps for Ukraine Abolition of Hiv Registries, Implementation of Routine Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing and Expansion of Services
Izenberg, JM; Altice, FL
Addiction, 105(3): 569-570.

Lancet
HIV self-testing: a time to revise current policy
Frith, L
Lancet, 369(): 243-245.

Annals of Emergency Medicine
To test or not to test? HIV, emergency departments, and the new centers for disease control and prevention guidelines
Borg, KT
Annals of Emergency Medicine, 49(5): 573-574.
10.1016/j.annemergmed.2006.01.013
CrossRef
British Medical Journal
Time to move towards opt-out testing for HIV in the UK
Hamill, M; Burgoine, K; Farrell, F; Hemelaar, J; Patel, G; Welchew, DE; Jaffe, HW
British Medical Journal, 334(): 1352-1354.

Journal of Womens Health
Contraceptive use among US women with HIV
Massad, LS; Evans, CT; Wilson, TE; Golub, ET; Sanchez-Keeland, L; Minkoff, H; Weber, K; Watts, DH
Journal of Womens Health, 16(5): 657-666.
10.1089/jwh.2006.0204
CrossRef
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Late diagnosis of HIV in young men in north Carolina
Torrone, EA; Thomas, JC; Leone, PA; Hightow-Weidman, LB
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 34(): 846-848.
10.1097/OLQ.01b013e31809505f7
CrossRef
Studies in Family Planning
The sexual ethics of HIV testing and the rights and responsibilities of partners
Dixon-Mueller, R
Studies in Family Planning, 38(4): 284-296.

AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Heterosexual HIV and Sexual Partnerships Between Injection Drug Users and Noninjection Drug Users
Jenness, SM; Neaigus, A; Hagan, H; Murrill, CS; Wendel, T
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 24(3): 175-181.
10.1089/apc.2009.0227
CrossRef
Evaluation & the Health Professions
Who Chooses a Rapid Test for HIV in Los Angeles County, California?
Marsh, KA; Reynolds, GL; Rogala, BE; Fisher, DG; Napper, LE
Evaluation & the Health Professions, 33(2): 177-196.
10.1177/0163278710361929
CrossRef
New England Journal of Medicine
Home testing for HIV
Wright, AA; Katz, IT
New England Journal of Medicine, 354(5): 437-440.

Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association
Missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis of HIV infection - South Carolina, 1997-2005 (Reprinted from MMWR, vol 55, pg 1269-1271, 2006)
Duffus, W; Kettinger, L; Stephens, T; Gibson, J; Weis, K; Tyrell, M; Patterson, D; Finney, C; Bailey, WP; Branson, B; Gardner, L; Kilmarx, PH
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 297(2): 149-150.

AIDS and Behavior
Repeat voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT), sexual risk behavior and HIV incidence in Rakai, Uganda
Matovu, JKB; Gray, RH; Kiwanuka, N; Kigozi, G; Wabwire-Mangen, F; Nalugoda, F; Serwadda, D; Sewankambo, NK; Wawer, MJ
AIDS and Behavior, 11(1): 71-78.
10.1007/s10461-006-9170-y
CrossRef
AIDS
Long-term psychosocial challenges for people living with HIV: let's not forget the individual in our global response to the pandemic
Remien, RH; Mellins, CA
AIDS, 21(): S55-S63.

Journal of Law Medicine & Ethics
Legal tools to advance women's health
Mastro, T; Monnes-Anderson, L; Pitts, P; Pulver, A; Popovic, T
Journal of Law Medicine & Ethics, 35(4): 46-49.

Addiction
Mitigating risky sexual behaviors among Russian narcology hospital patients: the PREVENT (Partnership to Reduce the Epidemic Via Engagement in Narcology Treatment) randomized controlled trial
Samet, JH; Krupitsky, EM; Cheng, DM; Raj, A; Egorova, VY; Levenson, S; Meli, S; Bridden, C; Verbitskaya, EV; Kamb, ML; Zvartau, EE
Addiction, 103(9): 1474-1483.
10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02251.x
CrossRef
Journal of Urban Health-Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
HIV Testing Rates, Testing Locations, and Healthcare Utilization among Urban African-American Men
Petroll, AE; DiFranceisco, W; McAuliffe, TL; Seal, DW; Kelly, JA; Pinkerton, SD
Journal of Urban Health-Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 86(1): 119-131.
10.1007/s11524-008-9339-y
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
High-Volume Rapid HIV Testing in an Urban Emergency Department
Calderon, Y; Leider, J; Hailpern, S; Chin, R; Ghosh, R; Fettig, J; Gennis, P; Bijur, P; Bauman, L
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 23(9): 749-757.
10.1089/apc.2008.0270
CrossRef
Public Health Reports
Implementing Packaged HIV-Prevention Interventions for HIV-Positive Individuals: Considerations for Clinic-Based and Community-Based Interventions
Collins, CB; Hearn, KD; Whittier, DN; Freeman, A; Stallworth, JD; Phields, M
Public Health Reports, 125(): 55-63.

Tropical Doctor
HIV testing in patients with TB
De Cock, KM; Odhiambo, J
Tropical Doctor, 36(2): 71-73.

Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association
HIV prevention for a threatened continent - Implementing positive prevention in Africa
Bunnell, R; Mermin, J; De Cock, KM
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 296(7): 855-858.

Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Promoting self-testing for HIV in developing countries: potential benefits and pitfalls
Kachroo, S
Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 84(): 999-1000.

Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association
Rapid HIV testing among racial/ethnic minority men at gay pride events - Nine US cities, 2004-2006 (Reprinted from MMWR, vol 56, pg 602, 2007)
Dowling, T; Macias, O; Sebesta, D; Antonio, E; Emerson, C; Hinojosa, L; LaKosky, P; Calhoun, CB; Randall, L; Tucker, B; Flynn, C; Robinson, M; Mangum, H; Thompson, C; Wrigley, D; Buie, M; Bost, D; Smith, A; Begley, E; Boyett, B; Clark, H; Heffelfinger, J; Jafa-Bhushan, K; Schulden, J; Song, B; Thomas, P; Sullivan, P; Voetsch, A
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 298(6): 621-622.

AIDS Education and Prevention
Sexual behaviors of individuals with HIV living in south India: A qualitative study
Krishnan, AKS; Hendriksen, E; Vallablianem, S; Johnson, SL; Raminani, S; Kumarasamy, N; Hobsen, J; Solomon, S; Mayer, KH; Safren, SA
AIDS Education and Prevention, 19(4): 334-345.

Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Late diagnosis of HIV infection: Epidemiological features, consequences and strategies to encourage earlier testing
Girardi, E; Sabin, CA; Monforte, AD
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 46(): S3-S8.

AIDS
Estimating sexual transmission of HIV from persons aware and unaware that they are infected with the virus in the USA
Marks, G; Crepaz, N; Janssen, RS
AIDS, 20(): 1447-1450.

AIDS
A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of alternative HIV counseling and testing methods to increase knowledge of HIV status
Hutchinson, AB; Branson, BM; Kim, A; Farnham, PG
AIDS, 20(): 1597-1604.

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Nih, Vol 1: Frontiers in Research
NIAID HIV/AIDS Prevention Research
Bums, DN; Black, R
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Nih, Vol 1: Frontiers in Research, (): 319-325.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Implementation of HIV Testing at 2 New York City Bathhouses: From Pilot to Clinical Service
Daskalakis, D; Silvera, R; Bernstein, K; Stein, D; Hagerty, R; Hutt, R; Maillard, A; Borkowsky, W; Aberg, J; Valentine, F; Marmor, M
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 48(): 1609-1616.
10.1086/598979
CrossRef
AIDS and Behavior
HIV Partner Notification: Predictors of Discussion and Agreements from Provider Reports
Swendeman, DT; Grusky, O; Swanson, AN
AIDS and Behavior, 13(3): 573-581.
10.1007/s10461-009-9522-5
CrossRef
Addiction
Interventions with injection drug users in Ukraine
Booth, RE; Lehman, WEK; Dvoryak, S; Brewster, JT; Sinitsyna, L
Addiction, 104(): 1864-1873.
10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02660.x
CrossRef
AIDS
Integrating HIV care and HIV prevention: legal, policy and programmatic recommendations
Remien, RH; Berkman, A; Myer, L; Bastos, FI; Kagee, A; El-Sadr, WM
AIDS, 22(): S57-S65.

Journal of Aging and Health
Self-Silencing and Age as Risk Factors for Sexually Acquired HIV in Midlife and Older Women
Jacobs, RJ; Thomlison, B
Journal of Aging and Health, 21(1): 102-128.
10.1177/0898264308328646
CrossRef
Current Hiv Research
Delayed Diagnosis of HIV Infection in a Multicenter Cohort: Prevalence, Risk Factors, Response to HAART and Impact on Mortality
Sobrino-Vegas, P; Miguel, LGS; Caro-Murillo, AM; Miro, JM; Viciana, P; Tural, C; Saumoy, M; Santos, I; Sola, J; del Amo, J; Moreno, S
Current Hiv Research, 7(2): 224-230.

Stanford Law Review
Racing the Closet
Robinson, RK
Stanford Law Review, 61(6): 1463-1533.

AIDS and Behavior
Drug Use, High-Risk Sex Behaviors, and Increased Risk for Recent HIV Infection among Men who Have Sex with Men in Chicago and Los Angeles
Carey, JW; Mejia, R; Bingham, T; Ciesielski, C; Gelaude, D; Herbst, JH; Sinunu, M; Sey, E; Prachand, N; Jenkins, RA; Stall, R
AIDS and Behavior, 13(6): 1084-1096.
10.1007/s10461-008-9403-3
CrossRef
American Journal of Public Health
Dental Examinations as an Untapped Opportunity to Provide HIV Testing for High-Risk Individuals
Pollack, HA; Metsch, LR; Abel, S
American Journal of Public Health, 100(1): 88-89.
10.2105/AJPH.2008.157230
CrossRef
American Journal of Public Health
Assessment of HIV testing of urban injection drug users: Implications for expansion of HIV testing and prevention efforts
Heimer, R; Grau, LE; Curtin, E; Khoshnood, K; Singer, M
American Journal of Public Health, 97(1): 110-116.
10.2105/AJPH.2005.078105
CrossRef
Journal of Infectious Diseases
Primary HIV infection, phylogenetics, and antiretroviral prevention
Pillay, D; Fisher, M
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 195(7): 924-926.
10.1086/512090
CrossRef
American Journal of Medicine
Late diagnosis of HIV infection: The role of age and sex
Mugavero, MJ; Castellano, C; Edelman, D; Hicks, C
American Journal of Medicine, 120(4): 370-373.
10.1016/j.amjmed.2006.05.050
CrossRef
Annals of Emergency Medicine
Implementing an HIV and sexually transmitted disease screening program in an emergency department
Silva, A; Glick, NR; Lyss, SB; Hutchinson, AB; Gift, TL; Pealer, LN; Broussard, D; Whitman, S
Annals of Emergency Medicine, 49(5): 564-572.
10.1016/j.annemergmed.2006.09.028
CrossRef
AIDS and Behavior
Correlates of risk patterns and Race/Ethnicity among HIV-Positive men who have sex with men
O'Leary, A; Fisher, HH; Purcell, DW; Spikes, PS; Gomez, CA
AIDS and Behavior, 11(5): 706-715.
10.1007/s10461-006-9205-4
CrossRef
Journal of the National Medical Association
Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health-care settings
Branson, BM; Handsfield, HH; Lampe, MA; Janssen, RS; Taylor, AW; Lyss, SB; Clark, JE
Journal of the National Medical Association, 100(1): 131-147.

Annals of Emergency Medicine
Results of a Rapid HIV Screening and Diagnostic Testing Program in an Urban Emergency Department
White, DAE; Scribner, AN; Schulden, JD; Branson, BM; Heffelfinger, JD
Annals of Emergency Medicine, 54(1): 56-64.
10.1016/j.annemergmed.2008.09.027
CrossRef
International Journal of Std & AIDS
A randomized trial of computer-based reminders and audit and feedback to improve HIV screening in a primary care setting
Sundaram, V; Lazzeroni, LC; Douglass, LR; Sanders, GD; Tempio, P; Owens, DK
International Journal of Std & AIDS, 20(8): 527-533.
10.1258/ijsa.2008.008423
CrossRef
AIDS and Behavior
Lack of Understanding of Acute HIV Infection among Newly-Infected Persons-Implications for Prevention and Public Health: The NIMH Multisite Acute HIV Infection Study: II
Remien, RH; Higgins, JA; Correale, J; Bauermeister, J; Dubrow, R; Bradley, M; Steward, WT; Seal, DW; Sikkema, KJ; Kerndt, PR; Mayer, KH; Truong, HHM; Casey, CY; Ehrhardt, AA; Morin, SF
AIDS and Behavior, 13(6): 1046-1053.
10.1007/s10461-009-9581-7
CrossRef
AIDS and Behavior
Mental Health Treatment to Reduce HIV Transmission Risk Behavior: A Positive Prevention Model
Sikkema, KJ; Watt, MH; Drabkin, AS; Meade, CS; Hansen, NB; Pence, BW
AIDS and Behavior, 14(2): 252-262.
10.1007/s10461-009-9650-y
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Supporting adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy and protected sex among people living with HIV/AIDS: The role of patient-provider communication in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil
Fehringer, J; Bastos, FI; Massard, E; Maia, L; Pilotto, JH; Kerrigan, D
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 20(9): 637-648.

Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association
HIV screening in health care settings - Public health and civil liberties in conflict?
Gostin, LO
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 296(): 2023-2025.

Plos One
Disinhibition in Risky Sexual Behavior in Men, but Not Women, during Four Years of Antiretroviral Therapy in Rural, Southwestern Uganda
Kembabazi, A; Bajunirwe, F; Hunt, PW; Martin, JN; Muzoora, C; Haberer, JE; Bangsberg, DR; Siedner, MJ
Plos One, 8(7): -.
ARTN e69634
CrossRef
AIDS and Behavior
HIV Prevalence and Sexual Risk Behaviors Associated with Awareness of HIV Status Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Paris, France
Velter, A; Barin, F; Bouyssou, A; Guinard, J; Leon, L; Le Vu, S; Pillonel, J; Spire, B; Semaille, C
AIDS and Behavior, 17(4): 1266-1278.
10.1007/s10461-012-0303-1
CrossRef
AIDS and Behavior
A Cross-Sectional Evaluation of Correlates of HIV Testing Practices Among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Mongolia
Yasin, F; Delegchoimbol, A; Jamiyanjamts, N; Sovd, T; Mason, K; Baral, S
AIDS and Behavior, 17(4): 1378-1385.
10.1007/s10461-013-0412-5
CrossRef
AIDS and Behavior
Syphilis Among Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) in Taiwan: Its Association With HIV Prevalence, Awareness of HIV Status, and Use of Antiretroviral Therapy
Huang, YF; Nelson, KE; Lin, YT; Yang, CH; Chang, FY; Lew-Ting, CY
AIDS and Behavior, 17(4): 1406-1414.
10.1007/s10461-012-0405-9
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
HIV Testing Beliefs in a Predominantly Hispanic Community Health Center During the Routine HIV Testing Era: Does English Language Ability Matter?
Arya, M; Amspoker, AB; Lalani, N; Patuwo, B; Kallen, M; Street, R; Viswanath, K; Giordano, TP
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 27(1): 38-44.
10.1089/apc.2012.0230
CrossRef
AIDS
Sexual risk behaviour and knowledge of HIV status among community samples of gay men in the UK
Williamson, LM; Dodds, JP; Mercey, DE; Hart, GJ; Johnson, AM
AIDS, 22(9): 1063-1070.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282f8af9b
PDF (123) | CrossRef
AIDS
National estimation of rates of HIV serology testing in US emergency departments 1993–2005: baseline prior to the 2006 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations
Hsieh, Y; Rothman, RE; Newman-Toker, DE; Kelen, GD
AIDS, 22(16): 2127-2134.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e328310e066
PDF (142) | CrossRef
AIDS
Prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse among HIV-diagnosed MSM in the United States: a meta-analysis
Crepaz, N; Marks, G; Liau, A; Mullins, MM; Aupont, LW; Marshall, KJ; Jacobs, ED; Wolitski, RJ; for the HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Synthesis (PRS) Team,
AIDS, 23(13): 1617-1629.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832effae
PDF (432) | CrossRef
AIDS
A resurgent HIV-1 epidemic among men who have sex with men in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy
Bezemer, D; de Wolf, F; Boerlijst, MC; van Sighem, A; Hollingsworth, TD; Prins, M; Geskus, RB; Gras, L; Coutinho, RA; Fraser, C
AIDS, 22(9): 1071-1077.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282fd167c
PDF (151) | CrossRef
AIDS
Egocentric network data provide additional information for characterizing an individual's HIV risk profile
Périssé, AR; Langenberg, P; Hungerford, L; Boulay, M; Charurat, M; Schechter, M; Blattner, W
AIDS, 24(2): 291-298.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e328333eb81
PDF (432) | CrossRef
AIDS
HIV incidence during a cluster-randomized trial of two strategies providing voluntary counselling and testing at the workplace, Zimbabwe
Corbett, EL; Makamure, B; Cheung, YB; Dauya, E; Matambo, R; Bandason, T; Munyati, SS; Mason, PR; Butterworth, AE; Hayes, RJ
AIDS, 21(4): 483-489.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e3280115402
PDF (110) | CrossRef
AIDS
HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV-infected adults in Uganda: results of a nationally representative survey
Bunnell, R; Opio, A; Musinguzi, J; Kirungi, W; Ekwaru, P; Mishra, V; Hladik, W; Kafuko, J; Madraa, E; Mermin, J
AIDS, 22(5): 617-624.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282f56b53
PDF (106) | CrossRef
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Sexual networks and the transmission of drug-resistant HIV
Drumright, LN; Frost, SD
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, 21(6): 644-652.
10.1097/QCO.0b013e328318977c
PDF (179) | CrossRef
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Late diagnosis of HIV infection: major consequences and missed opportunities
Fisher, M
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, 21(1): 1-3.
10.1097/QCO.0b013e3282f2d8fb
PDF (67) | CrossRef
Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Partner notification in the clinician's office: patient health, public health and interventions
Hogben, M; Burstein, GR; Golden, MR
Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 21(5): 365-370.
10.1097/GCO.0b013e3283307c2a
PDF (301) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Infections Prevented by Increasing HIV Serostatus Awareness in the United States, 2001 to 2004
Pinkerton, SD; Holtgrave, DR; Galletly, CL
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 47(3): 354-357.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e318160d57e
PDF (72) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Undiagnosed HIV Prevalence Among Adults and Adolescents in the United States at the End of 2006
Campsmith, ML; Rhodes, PH; Hall, HI; Green, TA
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 53(5): 619-624.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181bf1c45
PDF (105) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Detecting Unsuspected HIV Infection With a Rapid Whole-Blood HIV Test in an Urban Emergency Department
Weinstein, RA; Lyss, SB; Branson, BM; Kroc, KA; Couture, EF; Newman, DR
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 44(4): 435-442.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e31802f83d0
PDF (140) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Primary HIV Infection Education: Knowledge and Attitudes of HIV-Negative Men Who Have Sex With Men Attending a Public Health Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic
Stekler, J; Collier, AC; Holmes, KK; Golden, MR
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 42(1): 123-126.
10.1097/01.qai.0000218357.82970.67
PDF (91) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Characteristics of Recently HIV-Infected Men Who Use the Internet to Find Male Sex Partners and Sexual Practices With Those Partners
Smith, DM; Drumright, LN; Frost, SD; Cheng, WS; Espitia, S; Daar, ES; Little, SJ; Gorbach, PM
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 43(5): 582-587.
10.1097/01.qai.0000243100.49899.2a
PDF (236) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Circumcision Status and HIV Infection Among Black and Latino Men Who Have Sex With Men in 3 US Cities
Murrill, C; Liu, K; Wheeler, D; Liau, A; Marks, G; Millett, GA; Ding, H; Lauby, J; Flores, S; Stueve, A; Bingham, T; Carballo-Dieguez, A
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 46(5): 643-650.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e31815b834d
PDF (110) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Updated Annual HIV Transmission Rates in the United States, 1977-2006
Holtgrave, DR; Hall, HI; Rhodes, PH; Wolitski, RJ
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 50(2): 236-238.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e31819001be
PDF (137) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Undiagnosed HIV Infection Among New York City Jail Entrants, 2006: Results of a Blinded Serosurvey
Parvez, F; Begier, EM; Bennani, Y; Forgione, L; Punsalang, A; Hanna, DB; Herrera, J; Torian, L; Gbur, M; Sepkowitz, KA
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 54(1): 93-101.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181c98fa8
PDF (222) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Routine Voluntary HIV Testing in Durban, South Africa: The Experience From an Outpatient Department
Bassett, IV; Giddy, J; Nkera, J; Wang, B; Losina, E; Lu, Z; Freedberg, KA; Walensky, RP
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 46(2): 181-186.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e31814277c8
PDF (99) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Number of Named Partners and Number of Partners Newly Diagnosed With HIV Infection Identified by Persons With Acute Versus Established HIV Infection
Moore, ZS; McCoy, S; Kuruc, J; Hilton, M; Leone, P
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 52(4): 509-513.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181ac12bf
PDF (94) | CrossRef
Journal of Public Health Management and Practice
TEST: A Public Health and Law Enforcement Collaboration to Increase HIV/AIDS Prevention in Westchester County, New York
Yang, P
Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 15(2): 118-122.
10.1097/01.PHH.0000346008.44028.3e
PDF (78) | CrossRef
Journal of Public Health Management and Practice
The Continued Spread of HIV in the United States: Prevention Failure or Systems Defect?
Valdiserri, RO
Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 12(6): 586-589.

PDF (70)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Provider and Client Acceptance of a Health Department Enhanced Approach to Improve HIV Partner Notification in New York City
Udeagu, CN; Bocour, A; Gale, I; Begier, EM
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 37(4): 266-271.
10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181d013e0
PDF (206) | CrossRef
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Exposure to HIV Partner Counseling and Referral Services and Notification of Sexual Partners among Persons Recently Diagnosed with HIV
MacKellar, DA; Hou, S; Behel, S; Boyett, B; Miller, D; Sey, E; Harawa, N; Prachand, N; Bingham, T; Ciesielski, C
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 36(3): 170-177.
10.1097/OLQ.0b013e31818d6500
PDF (301) | CrossRef
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Herpes Simplex Virus-2 and HIV Among Noninjecting Drug Users in New York City
Des Jarlais, DC; Hagan, H; Arasteh, K; McKnight, C; Perlman, D; Friedman, SR
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 34(11): 923-927.
10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3180ca9647
PDF (179) | CrossRef
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Voluntary Rapid Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing in Jails
Macgowan, R; Margolis, A; Richardson-Moore, A; Wang, T; Lalota, M; French, PT; Stodola, J; Mckeever, J; Carrel, J; Mullins, J; Llanas, M; Griffiths, SD; for the Rapid Testing in Corrections (RTIC) Team,
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 36(2): S9-S13.
10.1097/OLQ.0b013e318148b6b1
PDF (183) | CrossRef
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Normalizing HIV Testing in a Busy Urban Sexually Transmitted Infections Clinic
Brooks, L; Rietmeijer, CA; McEwen, D; Subiadur, JA; Mettenbrink, CJ
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 36(3): 127-128.
10.1097/OLQ.0b013e318191701c
PDF (121) | CrossRef
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Association Between Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Changes in Risk Behaviors Among Injecting Drug Users in Southern China
Yao, Y; Xu, J; Chang, D; Wang, G; Zhu, Y; Wang, N; Jin, X; Smith, K; Sun, Y; Ding, G
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 36(8): 473-477.
10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181a2a90c
PDF (177) | CrossRef
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Design and Evaluation of a Drama-Based Intervention to Promote Voluntary Counseling and HIV Testing in a South African Community
Middelkoop, K; Myer, L; Smit, J; Wood, R; Bekker, L
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 33(8): 524-526.
10.1097/01.olq.0000219295.50291.1d
PDF (192) | CrossRef
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Serosorting May Increase the Risk of HIV Acquisition Among Men Who Have Sex With Men
Wilson, DP; Regan, DG; Heymer, K; Jin, F; Prestage, GP; Grulich, AE
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 37(1): 13-17.
10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181b35549
PDF (750) | CrossRef
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Reducing Sexual Risk Behavior Among Steady Heterosexual Serodiscordant Couples in a Testing and Counseling Program
Hernando, V; del Romero, J; García, S; Rodríguez, C; del Amo, J; Castilla, J
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 36(10): 621-628.
10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181aac222
PDF (262) | CrossRef
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Missed Opportunities for HIV Testing Among High-Risk Heterosexuals
Jenness, SM; Murrill, CS; Liu, K; Wendel, T; Begier, E; Hagan, H
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 36(11): 704-710.
10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181ab375d
PDF (234) | CrossRef
Back to Top | Article Outline
Keywords:

HIV-positive persons; HIV/AIDS; high-risk sexual behavior; HIV transmission; meta-analysis

© 2005 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Login

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.