JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes:
Letters to the Editor
In Vivo Cell-Mediated Immunity in Subjects with Undetectable Viral Load on Protease Inhibitor–Based Versus Non-Protease Inhibitor–Based Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
Ananworanich, Jintanat; Nuesch, Reto; Teeratakulpisarn, Somsong; Srasuebkul, Preeyaporn; Chuenyam, Theshinee; Siangphoe, Umaporn; Ungsedhaphand, Chaiwat; Phanuphak, Praphan; Ruxrungtham, Kiat
HIV Netherlands Australia Thailand Research Collaboration
and the Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Center,
To the Editor:
Delayed hypersensitivity skin testing (DTH) is a widely available, cost-effective, and relatively easy-to-use tool for detection of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). A response to DTH signifies intact CMI, whereas a negative response may represent a possible defect in CMI or a lack of previous exposure. In HIV infection, DTH predicts clinical progression (1,2) and has been shown to correlate with CD4 cell count (1,3). Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly improved clinical progression of HIV infection (4,5). HAART with protease inhibitors (PIs) has also rapidly restored immunologic abnormalities in HIV infection (6,7). Although studies have shown the virologic efficacy of non-PI HAART (8–10), data on the recovery of immunologic functions with these regimens is scarce. Indeed, it has been postulated by some that PI-based regimens may result in better immune reconstitution compared with regimens without PIs.
In this prospective, nonrandomized, cross-sectional study, HIV-infected subjects with and without HAART were recruited between August 1 and September 30, 2001. Recruitment was done at the Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Center and the Immune Clinic at Chulalongkorn Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. Inclusion criteria for subjects on HAART were viral load (VL) <50 copies/mL for at least 6 months and maintenance on one of these regimens: triple nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), dual NRTI plus nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), or dual NRTI plus PIs during the period of viral suppression. HIV-infected untreated subjects served as controls. The most recent CD4 cell count within 6 months of the recruitment date was used. The multitest CMI (11) used in this study includes the following antigens:Candida, Trichophyton, Proteus mirabilis, old tuberculin, Streptococcus group C, diphtheria, and tetanus (MULTITEST CMI; Aventis Pasteur Thailand, Ltd, Thailand). The DTH was placed by trained personnel and read at 48 to 72 hours after placement by 2 immunologists. The average of combined horizontal and vertical diameters in millimeters represented the DTH response to each antigen. Subjects with response of ≥5 mm to tuberculin were advised to obtain chest radiography (CXR). Subjects with normal CXR were advised to take isoniazid for 9 months, whereas subjects with abnormal CXR were advised to visit their physician for further investigation for tuberculosis. The primary outcome was the summed DTH response, defined as the summation of induration in millimeters to each antigen divided by the number of antigens with induration. Furthermore, the percentage of subjects with intact CMI, defined as a positive DTH response (≥2 mm) to at least two antigens, and the ability of individual antigens to elicit a DTH response were investigated. For the groups of subjects compared (PI-HAART, non-PI–HAART, HAART-treated, and HAART-untreated), stratified analysis was performed based on a CD4 count of <350 or ≥350 cells/mm3, according to the current recommendation for the initiation of HAART (12). Differences between groups were calculated using the Mann-Whitney U test at an α value of 0.05. For three-group comparison, the Kruskal-Wallis H test was performed. Multiple linear regression was used to determine factors related to DTH response.
A total of 142 subjects underwent DTH. Ninety-three subjects were treated with HAART, and 49 were untreated. Subjects on HAART were divided into a group of PI-HAART (n = 22) and a group of non-PI–HAART (n = 71; 10 triple NRTI and 61 dual NRTI plus NNRTI). There were significant differences between HAART-untreated and HAART-treated groups in age (younger in untreated group, 33.2 ± 7.9 years versus 38.1 ± 5.4 years in treated group;p < .01) and median CD4 cell count (lower in the <350 cells/mm3 strata for untreated subjects, 149 (53–225) versus 242 (176–291) for treated subjects;p < .002). Between the HAART-treated groups, baseline differences were Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) clinical class (more subjects in CDC class A for non-PI–HAART, 55.1% versus 22.7% for PI-HAART;p < .001) and time on HAART (longer for patients with PIs, 2.41 ± 0.7 years versus 1.67 ± 0.92 years without PIs;p < .01). Otherwise, the groups were well balanced. Table 1 demonstrates the summed DTH response and the percentages of subjects with intact CMI and with a positive old tuberculin test according to HAART status, CD4 categories, and treatment regimens. Overall, there was no statistically significant difference between the summed DTH response in subjects on HAART with and without PIs. This also applied when subjects were stratified within the <350 cells/mm3 and ≥350 cells/mm3 groups. The percentage of subjects with intact CMI was higher in the non-PI group, however. When comparing subjects on HAART with subjects without HAART, summed DTH response was significantly better in the CD4 <350 cells/mm3 category for subjects with HAART. Overall, DTH response and chance for intact CMI were significantly better in subjects who had CD4 ≥350 cells/mm3 compared with subjects with CD4 <350 cells/mm3. In the univariate linear regression analysis, summed DTH response was significantly and positively associated with a viral load <50 copies/mL, the absolute CD4 cell count, and HAART. In the multivariable analysis, only the absolute CD4 cell count remained significantly and positively associated with the summed DTH response, although there was a trend for the association between summed DTH response and viral load <50 copies/mL (p = .149). The antigens that elicited DTH response from largest to smallest were as follows: diphtheria, tetanus, old tuberculin, Candida, Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus group C, and trichophyton.
Our results show that the immune recovery measured by summed DTH response is independent of the HAART regimen. These findings are in accordance with recent studies showing that immune reconstitution achieved after therapy with a PI-sparing or PI-containing regimen was similar (13) and independent of virologic efficacy (13,14). Summed DTH response in our study was positively associated with increasing CD4 cell count independent of the HAART regimen or any antiretroviral treatment. A positive correlation between CD4 cell count and DTH response is well known; however, the CD4 cutoff differs between studies (1,3,15,16). Brown et al. (3) reported complete anergy in 38% of 73 subjects with CD4 counts of 0 to 200 cells/mm3 and in 6% of 78 subjects with 201 to 400 cells/mm3. Suwanagool et al. (16) showed that tuberculin reactions of HIV-seropositive patients were 6.4 mm versus 11.0 mm among those with CD4 counts of 200 to 299 cells/mm3 and ≥300 cells/mm3, respectively. Intact CMI was found more frequently in subjects with PI-sparing HAART. There were higher percentages of subjects in the non-PI–HAART group with less advanced clinical status and with positive tuberculin reactions compared with the PI-HAART group, however. Interestingly, in the subgroup of subjects with a CD4 cell count <350 cells/mm3, the DTH response was significantly better in subjects treated with HAART compared with untreated subjects. This was probably due to the higher median CD4 count in the treated subjects in this subgroup. Indeed, French et al. (17) showed that even a small increase in CD4 cell count achieved by azidothymidine monotherapy had a positive effect on DTH response. It has been shown that, at least in advanced HIV infection, viral replication impairs immune functions (18). Our data show a positive trend between summed DTH response and VL <50 copies/mL. Diphtheria, tetanus, and tuberculin were the most likely antigens to elicit differences in DTH response between the two CD4 groups, suggesting that in a resource-constrained setting, the choice of antigens can be limited to these antigens.
In summary, no differences between PI-based and non-PI–based HAART in in vivo immune reconstitution can be found in subjects who have achieved virologic undetectability and an identical CD4 cell response.
1. Birx DL, Brundage J, Larson K, et al. The prognostic utility of delayed-type hypersensitivity skin testing in the evaluation of HIV-infected patients. Military Medical Consortium for Applied Retroviral Research. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1993; 6:1248–1257.
2. Blatt SP, Hendrix CW, Butzin CA, et al. Delayed-type hypersensitivity skin testing predicts progression to AIDS in HIV-infected patients. Ann Intern Med. 1993; 119:177–184.
3. Brown AE, Markowitz L, Nitayaphan S, et al. DTH responsiveness of HIV-infected Thai adults. J Med Assoc Thai. 2000; 83:633–639.
4. Egger M, Hirschel B, Francioli P, et al. Impact of new antiretroviral combination therapies in HIV infected patients in Switzerland: prospective multicentre study. Swiss HIV Cohort Study. BMJ. 1997; 315:1194–1199.
5. Palella Jr, FJ, Delaney KM, Moorman AC, et al. Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV Outpatient Study Investigators. N Engl J Med. 1998; 338:853–860.
6. Autran B, Carcelain G, Li TS, et al. Positive effects of combined antiretroviral therapy on CD4+ T cell homeostasis and function in advanced HIV disease. Science. 1997; 277:112–116.
7. Oxenius A, Price DA, Easterbrook PJ, et al. Early highly active antiretroviral therapy for acute HIV-1 infection preserves immune function of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2000; 97:3382–3387.
8. Garcia F, Knobel H, Sambeat MA, et al. Comparison of twice-daily stavudine plus once-or twice-daily didanosine and nevirapine in early stages of HIV infection: the scan study. AIDS. 2000; 14:2485–2494.
9. Montaner JS, Reiss P, Cooper D, et al. A randomized, double-blind trial comparing combinations of nevirapine, didanosine, and zidovudine for HIV-infected patients: the INCAS Trial. Italy, The Netherlands, Canada and Australia Study. JAMA. 1998; 279:930–937.
10. Staszewski S, Morales-Ramirez J, Tashima KT, et al. Efavirenz plus zidovudine and lamivudine, efavirenz plus indinavir, and indinavir plus zidovudine and lamivudine in the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults. Study 006 Team. N Engl J Med. 1999; 341:1865–1873.
11. Ananworanich J, Shearer WT. Delayed-type hypersensitivity skin testing. In Manual of clinical laboratory immunology.
6th ed. ASM Press, 2002;212–219.
12. Yeni PG, Hammer SM, Carpenter CC, et al. Antiretroviral treatment of adult HIV infection in 2002: updated recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA Panel. JAMA. 2002; 288:222–235.
13. Plana M, Martinez C, Garcia F, et al. Immunologic reconstitution after 1 year of highly active antiretroviral therapy, with or without protease inhibitors. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002; 29:429–434.
14. Lange CG, Lederman MM, Madero JS, et al. Impact of suppression of viral replication by highly active antiretroviral therapy on immune function and phenotype in chronic HIV-1 infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002; 30:33–40.
15. Mezzaroma I, Carlesimo M, Pinter E, et al. Long-term evaluation of T-cell subsets and T-cell function after HAART in advanced stage HIV-1 disease. AIDS. 1999; 13:1187–1193.
16. Suwanagool S, Chuenarom V, Pechthanon L, et al. A comparative study of tuberculin skin test reactivity between asymptomatic HIV-1 seropositive subjects and healthy volunteers. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 1995; 13:139–144.
17. French MA, Cameron PU, Grimsley G, et al. Correction of human immunodeficiency virus-associated depression of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) after zidovudine therapy: DTH, CD4+ T-cell numbers, and epidermal Langerhans cell density are independent variables. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1990; 55:86–96.
18. Wendland T, Furrer H, Vernazza PL, et al. HAART in HIV-infected patients: restoration of antigen-specific CD4 T-cell responses in vitro is correlated with CD4 memory T-cell reconstitution, whereas improvement in delayed type hypersensitivity is related to a decrease in viraemia. AIDS. 1999; 13:1857–1862.
This article has been cited 2 time(s).
Predictive factors for immunological and virological endpoints in Thai patients receiving combination antiretroviral treatment
Hiv Medicine, 8(1):
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Retrospective Analysis of Wound Characteristics and Tetanus Development in Captive Macaques
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 40(1):
© 2003 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.