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JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes:
doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000196
Basic and Translational Science

Low Prevalence of Transmitted Drug Resistance of HIV-1 During 2008–2012 Antiretroviral Therapy Scaling up in Southern Vietnam

Tanuma, Junko MD, PhD*; Quang, Vo Minh MD; Hachiya, Atsuko PhD; Joya, Akane BSc*; Watanabe, Koji MD, PhD*; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki MD, PhD*; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen MD, PhD; Chinh, Nguyen Tran MD, PhD; Oka, Shinichi MD, PhD*

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Abstract

Background: The recent expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) program in resource-limited setting has raised concern about possible transmission of drug resistance (TDR). We assessed the prevalence of TDR over a 5-year period among treatment-naive individuals in Southern Vietnam during rapid ART scale-up.

Methods: Drug resistance mutations among antiretroviral-naive HIV-1–infected patients in Ho Chi Minh City were evaluated prospectively from 2008 to 2012 by HIV-1 pol gene sequencing. TDR was defined according to the World Health Organization list for surveillance of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in 2009.

Results: Pol sequence was obtained in 1389 individuals (median age: 30 years, males: 52.3%). Risks of HIV-1 infection included heterosexual contact in 60.7%, injection drug use in 22.4% and both 5.2%. The majority was infected with CRF01_AE (97%), whereas 19 were infected with subtype B. Over the 5-year study period, TDR was detected in 58 individuals (4.18%): 28 (2.02%) against nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), 19 (1.37%) against nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and 15 (1.08%) against protease inhibitors (PIs), including 4 (0.29%) against both NRTIs and NNRTIs. The most common TDR was K103N (0.5%) for NNRTI. The annual prevalence of TDR remained low to moderate (2008: 2.4%; 2009: 5.2%; 2010: 5.48%; 2011: 2.72%; 2012: 5.36%), and there was no clear trend over time.

Conclusions: There was no increase in TDR prevalence in Southern Vietnam during and after the 2008–2012 rapid scale up of ART.

© 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

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