Background: The recent expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) program in resource-limited setting has raised concern about possible transmission of drug resistance (TDR). We assessed the prevalence of TDR over a 5-year period among treatment-naive individuals in Southern Vietnam during rapid ART scale-up.
Methods: Drug resistance mutations among antiretroviral-naive HIV-1–infected patients in Ho Chi Minh City were evaluated prospectively from 2008 to 2012 by HIV-1 pol gene sequencing. TDR was defined according to the World Health Organization list for surveillance of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in 2009.
Results: Pol sequence was obtained in 1389 individuals (median age: 30 years, males: 52.3%). Risks of HIV-1 infection included heterosexual contact in 60.7%, injection drug use in 22.4% and both 5.2%. The majority was infected with CRF01_AE (97%), whereas 19 were infected with subtype B. Over the 5-year study period, TDR was detected in 58 individuals (4.18%): 28 (2.02%) against nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), 19 (1.37%) against nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and 15 (1.08%) against protease inhibitors (PIs), including 4 (0.29%) against both NRTIs and NNRTIs. The most common TDR was K103N (0.5%) for NNRTI. The annual prevalence of TDR remained low to moderate (2008: 2.4%; 2009: 5.2%; 2010: 5.48%; 2011: 2.72%; 2012: 5.36%), and there was no clear trend over time.
Conclusions: There was no increase in TDR prevalence in Southern Vietnam during and after the 2008–2012 rapid scale up of ART.