Our objective was to analyze, in formula-fed infants, correlates of HIV mother-to-child transmission, including cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. HIV-infected infants were matched with HIV uninfected by maternal HIV RNA in a case-control design. Infant CMV infection was determined by CMV IgG at 18 months and timed by earlier CMV IgM or CMV DNA. Correlations were assessed using logistic regression. In utero HIV infection was independently associated with congenital CMV infection (P = 0.01), intrapartum HIV infection with congenital-plus-intrapartum/neonatal CMV infection (P = 0.01), and overall HIV with overall CMV infection (P = 0.001), and prematurity (P = 0.004). Congenital and acquired CMV infections are strong independent correlates of mother-to-child HIV transmission.
From the *Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; †Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) UMI 174, Marseilles, France; ‡Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Boston, MA; §Bhumibol Adulyadej Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand; ‖Nakornping Hospital, Maerim, Chiang Mai, Thailand; ¶Lamphun Provincial Hospital, Lamphun, Thailand; #Health Promotion Hospital Regional Center I, Bangkok, Thailand; **Somdej Pranangchao Sirikit Hospital, Chonburi, Thailand; ††Buddhachinaraj Hospital, Pitsanuloke, Thailand; ‡‡Chonburi Regional Hospital, Chonburi, Thailand; §§Mae Sai Hospital, Mae Sai, Chiang Rai, Thailand; ‖‖Hat Yai Hospital, Hat Yai, Songkla, Thailand; and ¶¶Children's Hospital, Division of Infectious Diseases, Boston, MA.
Received for publication March 12, 2011; accepted June 17, 2011.
Mr Khamduang received a scholarship from the Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, and was supported by a Fogarty International Research Collaboration Award from the National Institutes of Health (R03 TW 01346-01). Also supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (5 R01 HD 33326), the Thai Ministry of Public Health, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, and the Thai Department of Technical and Economic Cooperation.
The data included in this report were partially presented at the 18th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, February to March 2011, Boston, MA.
None of the authors have any commercial or other association that might pose a conflict of interest.
The PHPT-1 Study Team is listed in Appendix I.
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Correspondence to: Nicole Ngo-Giang-Huong, PharmD, PhD, IRD UMI 174 - Program for HIV Prevention and Treatment (PHPT), Department of Medical Technology, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).