People infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at an increased risk of developing ischemic heart disease (IHD); however the effects of an education and home-based pedometer walking programme on risk factors of IHD are not known. We conducted a 12 month randomised study of an education and home-based pedometer walking programme in 84 HIV-infected individuals with risk factors of IHD. Pedometer step count of the control and intervention group improved significantly (p=0.03 respectively) at six months but was not significant at 12 months (p=0.33 and p=0.21). Significant between-group effects were observed in six-minute walk test distance (p=0.01), waist: hip ratio (p=0.00), glucose (p=0.00) and high density lipoprotein (p=0.01) over the 12 month period. The programme did not result in change in high sensitivity C-reactive protein as it was associated with perceived stress (r=0.23; p=0.03), weight (r=0.28; p=0.01), body mass index (r=0.35; p<0.00), waist (r=0.28; p=0.01) and hip circumference (r=0.28; p=0.01). Multivariate generalised estimation equation analysis demonstrated an inverse association between interaction and perceived stress (log B = -0.01; 95% CI: -0.02, -0.01; p <0.00) and body mass index (log B = -0.02: 95% CI: -0.03, -0.002; p = 0.02) at group level. An education and home-based pedometer walking programme improves physical activity levels and beneficial changes in other IHD risk factors were noted.
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