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Systemic Cytokine Levels Show Limited Correlation With Risk of HIV-1 Acquisition

Lehman, Dara A. MHS, PhD*,†; Ronen, Keshet PhD*; Blish, Catherine A. MD, PhD; Baeten, Jared M. MD, PhD†,§,‖; Jalalian-Lechak, Zahra BS*; Jaoko, Walter MBChB, PhD; Mandaliya, Kishorchandra MBChB, MRCPath#; Richardson, Barbra A. PhD†,**,††; McClelland, R. Scott MD, MPH†,§,‖,¶; Overbaugh, Julie PhD*,‡‡

JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: June 1st, 2014 - Volume 66 - Issue 2 - p 135–139
doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000104
Brief Report: Basic and Translational Science

Abstract: It has been hypothesized that immune activation and inflammation may increase HIV-1 susceptibility, and that cytokines may be useful biomarkers for risk. Within a prospective cohort, we conducted a nested case–control analysis of plasma cytokine levels among women who acquired HIV-1 <3 months after sampling, compared with 3 different control groups. We observed associations between lower interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 and higher IL-7 levels with HIV-1 acquisition, however, these associations were inconsistent when comparing with different control groups. Inconsistent results within our study and among previous studies suggest that reproducible findings are needed before cytokines are useful biomarkers for HIV-1 susceptibility.

*Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA;

Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA;

Department of Medicine, Stanford Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA;

Departments of §Medicine;

Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA;

Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya;

#Coast Provincial General Hospital, Women's Health Project, Mombasa, Kenya;

**Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA;

††Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; and

‡‡Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA.

Correspondence to: Dara A. Lehman, MHS, PhD, Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, mailstop C3-168, Seattle, WA 98109 (e-mail:dlehman@fhcrc.org).

Supported by Grants from the National Institutes of Health P01 HD064915 and R37 AI038518.

The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

Received December 30, 2013

Accepted December 30, 2013

© 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins