Background: Chronic viral hepatitis is a potentially important determinant of health care utilization among persons living with HIV. We describe hospitalization rates and reasons for hospitalization among persons living with HIV stratified by coinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV).
Methods: Laboratory, demographic, and hospitalization data were obtained for all patients receiving longitudinal HIV care during 2010 at 9 geographically diverse sites. Hepatitis serostatus was assessed by hepatitis B surface antigen and/or hepatitis C antibody. ICD-9 codes were used to assign hospitalizations into diagnostic categories. Negative binomial regression was used to assess factors associated with all-cause and diagnostic category-specific hospitalizations.
Results: A total of 2793 hospitalizations were observed among 12,819 patients. Of these patients, 49.3% had HIV monoinfection, 4.1% HIV/HBV, 15.4% HIV/HCV, 2.5% HIV/HBV/HCV, and 28.7% unknown hepatitis serostatus. Compared with HIV monoinfection, the risk of all-cause hospitalization was increased with HIV/HBV [adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.55 (1.17 to 2.06)], HIV/HCV [1.45 (1.21 to 1.74)], and HIV/HBV/HCV [1.52 (1.04 to 2.22)]. Risk of hospitalization for non–AIDS-defining infection was also higher among patients with HIV/HBV [2.07 (1.38 to 3.11)], HIV/HCV [1.81 (1.36 to 2.40)], and HIV/HBV/HCV [1.96 (1.11 to 3.46)]. HIV/HBV was associated with hospitalization for gastrointestinal/liver disease [2.55 (1.30 to 5.01)]. HIV/HCV was associated with hospitalization for psychiatric illness [1.89 (1.11 to 3.26)].
Conclusions: HBV and HCV coinfection are associated with increased risk of all-cause hospitalization and hospitalization for non–AIDS-defining infections, as compared with HIV monoinfection. Policy-makers and third-party payers should be aware of the heightened risk of hospitalization associated with coinfection when allocating health care resources and considering models of health care delivery.