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Random Biopsy During High-Resolution Anoscopy Increases Diagnosis of Anal High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions

Silvera, Richard MPH; Gaisa, Michael M. MD, PhD; Goldstone, Stephen E. MD

JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: January 1st, 2014 - Volume 65 - Issue 1 - p 65–71
doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3182a9b3d3
Clinical Science

Objective: Random biopsy (RB) of normal appearing cervix during colposcopy increases high-grade dysplasia (HSIL) diagnosis but has not been studied in high-resolution anoscopy (HRA), that is, colposcopy transferred to the anal canal. We investigated the utility of RB during HRA.

Design: At HRA, the anal canal was divided into 4 quadrants. Areas suspicious for HSIL had standard biopsy (SB); random biopsies were taken from quadrants without apparent HSIL. Inclusion required ≥1 RB. Two providers performed all procedures (S.E.G., >10 years experience; M.M.G. 3 years experience)[LINE SEPARATOR]

Results: Overall, 391 participants enrolled (mean age, 44.7 years); most were male (87.2%), non-Hispanic (69.8%), white (62.7%), and HIV positive (72.9%). Of 1761 biopsies, 883 were RBs (mean, 2.26/participant). HSIL was identified in 252 lesions, and in 132 participants (33.8%). Thirty-two HSILs (12.7%) and 13 participants (9.8%) were diagnosed by RB. RB increased total HSILs identified per participant (mean, 0.65 vs. 0.56; P < 0.001) and participants with HSIL (P < 0.001). Histologically, HSIL diagnoses via SB were no more dysplastic than random biopsies (relative risk, 0.82; range, 0.37–1.8). In multivariable analysis, factors affecting adjusted relative risk (ARR) of HSIL with any biopsy were provider [S.E.G vs. M.M.G.; ARR, 5.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3 to 25.8] and oncogenic human papillomaviral infection (ARR, 24.3; 95% CI, 2.8 to 213.3). Risk of HSIL on RB alone in multivariate analysis was associated with HSIL via SB (ARR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.6 to 7.1 or ARR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.9 per standard HSIL). Provider, HIV status, detectable viral load, age, or prior screening for or treatment of HSIL did not affect the utility of RB.

Conclusions: Addition of RB to HRA significantly increased both the number of HSILs and participants with HSIL identified.

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.

Correspondence to: Stephen E. Goldstone, MD, 420 West 23rd Street, New York, NY 10011 (e-mail:

R.S. was funded by the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Summer Scholars Program.

Presented orally at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections Q-111/Paper #142, March 3–6, 2013 Atlanta GA.

The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

R.S. aided in the design of the trial, collected and analyzed the data, wrote a draft of the article, and approved the article. M.M.G. aided in the design of the trial, performed the procedure, edited, and approved the article. S.E.G. designed the trial, performed the procedures, wrote a draft of the article, and approved the article.

Received May 30, 2013

Accepted August 19, 2013

© 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins