Objective: Random biopsy (RB) of normal appearing cervix during colposcopy increases high-grade dysplasia (HSIL) diagnosis but has not been studied in high-resolution anoscopy (HRA), that is, colposcopy transferred to the anal canal. We investigated the utility of RB during HRA.
Design: At HRA, the anal canal was divided into 4 quadrants. Areas suspicious for HSIL had standard biopsy (SB); random biopsies were taken from quadrants without apparent HSIL. Inclusion required ≥1 RB. Two providers performed all procedures (S.E.G., >10 years experience; M.M.G. 3 years experience)[LINE SEPARATOR]
Results: Overall, 391 participants enrolled (mean age, 44.7 years); most were male (87.2%), non-Hispanic (69.8%), white (62.7%), and HIV positive (72.9%). Of 1761 biopsies, 883 were RBs (mean, 2.26/participant). HSIL was identified in 252 lesions, and in 132 participants (33.8%). Thirty-two HSILs (12.7%) and 13 participants (9.8%) were diagnosed by RB. RB increased total HSILs identified per participant (mean, 0.65 vs. 0.56; P < 0.001) and participants with HSIL (P < 0.001). Histologically, HSIL diagnoses via SB were no more dysplastic than random biopsies (relative risk, 0.82; range, 0.37–1.8). In multivariable analysis, factors affecting adjusted relative risk (ARR) of HSIL with any biopsy were provider [S.E.G vs. M.M.G.; ARR, 5.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3 to 25.8] and oncogenic human papillomaviral infection (ARR, 24.3; 95% CI, 2.8 to 213.3). Risk of HSIL on RB alone in multivariate analysis was associated with HSIL via SB (ARR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.6 to 7.1 or ARR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.9 per standard HSIL). Provider, HIV status, detectable viral load, age, or prior screening for or treatment of HSIL did not affect the utility of RB.
Conclusions: Addition of RB to HRA significantly increased both the number of HSILs and participants with HSIL identified.