Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) dual infection (DI) in long-term nonprogressor–elite controller patients (LTNP-EC) has been described only in sporadic cases and then, consequences in disease progression are not clearly established. To fill-up this limited knowledge, we analyzed, for the first time, the prevalence, host genetic polymorphisms, and clinical consequences of HIV-1 DI in a group of LTNP-EC.
Methods: For DI detection, nucleotide sequences in env gene from viruses from 20 LTNP-EC were analyzed by maximum likelihood. Epidemiological and clinical parameters and host factors of patients were also studied.
Results: DI was detected in 4 (20%) of the 20 LTNP-EC, of which 3 maintained the elite controller status. CD4+ T-cell counts were not different between single and DI patients although higher CD8+ T-cell counts were observed in DI patients, and, consequently, the CD4+/CD8+ ratios were lower in LTNP-EC DI patients.
Conclusions: Prevalence of HIV-1 DIs in LTNP-EC is similar to other groups of HIV-1 patients; in addition, DI was not associated with loss of disease control in the patients. These DI LTNP-EC patients showed, in comparison with single infected patients, higher numbers of CD8+ T cells and lower CD4+/CD8+ ratios.