Objectives: To evaluate the clinical safety of daily tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) among HIV-negative men who have sex with men.
Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were randomized 1:1:1:1 to immediate or delayed study drug (TDF, 300 mg orally per day, or placebo).
Methods: Four hundred healthy HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men reporting anal sex with another man within the previous 12 months enrolled in Atlanta, Boston, and San Francisco. HIV serostatus, clinical and laboratory adverse events (AEs), adherence (pill count, Medication Event Monitoring System, and self-report), and sexual and other sociobehavioral data were assessed at 3-month intervals for 24 months. Primary outcomes were clinical safety, assessed by incidence of AEs and laboratory abnormalities.
Results: Study drug was initiated by 373 (93%) participants (186 TDF and 187 placebo), of whom 325 (87%) completed the final study visit. Of 2428 AEs reported among 334 (90%) participants, 2366 (97%) were mild or moderate in severity. Frequencies of commonly reported AEs did not differ significantly between TDF and placebo arms. In multivariable analyses, back pain was more likely among TDF recipients (P = 0.04); these reports were not associated with documented fractures or other objective findings. There were no grade ≥3 creatinine elevations; grades 1 and 2 creatinine increases were not associated with TDF receipt. Estimated percentage of study drug doses taken was 92% by pill count and 77% by Medication Event Monitoring System. Seven seroconversions occurred: 4 on placebo and 3 among delayed arm participants not yet on study drug.
Conclusions: Daily oral TDF was well tolerated, with reasonable adherence. No significant renal concerns were identified.