Objective: To evaluate changes in cardiovascular disease risk surrogate markers in a longitudinal cohort of HIV-infected adults over 6 years.
Design: Internal carotid artery (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) intima-media thickness (IMT), coronary artery calcium (CAC), vascular, and HIV risk factors were prospectively examined over 6 years in HIV-infected adults from 2002 to 2010.
Setting: Longitudinal cohort study with participants from urban center and surrounding communities.
Subjects/Participants: Three hundred forty-five HIV-infected participants were recruited from a longitudinal cohort study. Two hundred eleven participants completed the study and were included in this analysis.
Main Outcome Measures: Total and yearly ICA and CCA IMT change; CAC score progression.
Results: Participants were 27% female and 49% nonwhite; mean age at start was 45 ± 7 years. The median change in ICA and CCA over 6 years was 0.15 mm (0.08, 0.28) and 0.12 mm (0.09, 0.15), respectively. Age, baseline triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL, and pack-years smoking were associated with ICA IMT change; age, cholesterol, nadir CD4+ count, and protease inhibitor use were associated with CCA IMT change. Diabetes, HIV viral load, and highly active antiretroviral therapy duration were associated with CAC progression.
Conclusions: Carotid IMT and CAC progressed in this HIV-infected cohort. Some HIV-specific characteristics were associated with surrogate marker changes, but the majority of risk factors continue to be traditional. Aggressive identification and management of modifiable risk factors may reduce progression of cardiovascular disease risk in this population.