Background: BMS-663068 is the phosphonooxymethyl prodrug of BMS-626529, a small-molecule attachment inhibitor that targets the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 preventing it from binding to CD4+ T cells. In vitro investigations have demonstrated considerable variation in susceptibility of different HIV-1 isolates to BMS-626529. BMS-663068 monotherapy in HIV-1–infected subjects produced a mean maximum change from baseline of −1.64 log10 copies per milliliter, but the response was variable.
Methods: In this analysis, baseline and day 8 samples were analyzed for susceptibility to BMS-626529 and the presence of known HIV-1 attachment inhibitor resistance mutations. In addition, predictors of virological response (maximal HIV-1 RNA decline ≥1 log10 copies per milliliter) and resistance selection were investigated.
Results: The only factor associated with reduced virological response was low baseline susceptibility to BMS-626529. There was no apparent relationship between virological response and baseline treatment experience, coreceptor tropism, plasma HIV-1 RNA level, or CD4+ T-cell count. Examination of all positions with known BMS-626529 resistance mutations based on in vitro selection studies showed that gp120 M426L was the primary substitution most clearly associated with nonresponse to BMS-663068. There was minimal change in susceptibility to BMS-626529 over the course of the study and no clear evidence of emergence of a known HIV-1 attachment inhibitor resistance mutation in the majority of subjects as measured by standard population-based phenotypic and genotypic approaches.
Conclusions: Nonresponse to BMS-663068 was associated with low baseline susceptibility to BMS-626529 and the presence of M426L. In this short-term trial, there was minimal evidence of selection for BMS-626529 high-level resistance over 8 days of monotherapy with BMS-663068 by population-based approaches.