Skip Navigation LinksHome > August 15, 2013 - Volume 63 - Issue 5 > Evaluating Sleep and Cognition in HIV
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes:
doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31829d63ab
Clinical Science

Evaluating Sleep and Cognition in HIV

Gamaldo, Charlene E. MD*; Gamaldo, Alyssa PhD; Creighton, Jason BA*; Salas, Rachel E. MD*; Selnes, Ola A. PhD*; David, Paula M.*; Mbeo, Gilbert MD*; Parker, Benjamin S. BS*; Brown, Amanda PhD*; McArthur, Justin C. MBBS, MPH*,‡; Smith, Michael T. PhD§

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Objective: To examine the relationship between measures of sleep quality and cognitive performance in HIV-positive individuals stable on combination antiretroviral therapy.

Design: Multimethod assessments of sleep quality, patterns, and cognitive performance were assessed in a predominantly black HIV-positive cohort.

Methods: Sleep quality and patterns were characterized in 36 subjects by polysomnogram, 2-week actigraphy monitoring, and validated sleep questionnaires. Cognitive performance was assessed with a battery of neuropsychological tests.

Results: The majority of participants were cognitively impaired [based on Frascati (75%) criteria]. Self-reported mean scores on the Pittsburgh sleep quality index and the insomnia severity scale suggested poor sleep quality. Better cognitive performance, particularly on tasks of attention, frontal/executive function, and psychomotor/motor speed, was associated with polysomnogram sleep indices (ie, reduced wake after sleep onset, greater sleep efficiency, greater sleep latency, and greater total sleep time). Thirty-seven percent of participants had sleep patterns suggestive of chronic partial sleep deprivation, which was associated with significantly worse performance on the digit symbol test (P = 0.006), nondominant pegboard (P = 0.043), and verbal fluency tests (P = 0.044).

Conclusions: Our results suggest that compromised sleep quality and duration may have a significant impact on cognitive performance in HIV-positive individuals. Future studies are warranted to determine the utility of sleep quality and quantity indices as potential predictive biomarkers for development and progression of future HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder.

© 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins


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