Abstract: Adherence patterns and their influence on virologic outcome are well characterized for protease inhibitor (PI)- and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)–based regimens. We aimed to determine how patterns of adherence to raltegravir influence the risk of virological failure. We conducted a prospective multicenter cohort following 81 HIV-infected antiretroviral-naive or experienced subjects receiving or starting twice-a-day raltegravir-based antiretroviral therapy. Their adherence patterns were monitored using the Medication Events Monitoring System. During follow-up (188 days, ±77), 12 (15%) of 81 subjects experienced virological failure. Longer treatment interruption [adjusted odds ratio per 24-hour increase: 2.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.2 to 6.9; P < 0.02] and average adherence (odds ratio per 5% increase: 0.68; 95% confidence interval: 0.46 to 1.00, P < 0.05) were both independently associated with virological failure controlling for prior duration of viral suppression. Timely interdose intervals and high levels of adherence to raltegravir are both necessary to control HIV replication.