Abstract: We investigated the effect of food on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of lopinavir and ritonavir in 12 Ugandan patients receiving lopinavir coformulated with ritonavir (LPV/r) tablets using a crossover design. Intensive pharmacokinetic sampling was performed 7 days apart after LPV/r dosing under moderate fat, high fat, and fasted meal conditions. Lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Compared with the fasted state, a high fat meal reduced lopinavir and ritonavir area under the curve by 14% and 29%, respectively. With a moderate fat meal, area under the curve for both drugs was similar to the fasted state.