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Rate and Predictors of Success in the Retreatment of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus in HIV/Hepatitis C Virus Coinfected Patients With Prior Nonresponse or Relapse

Labarga, Pablo MD, PhD*; Vispo, Eugenia MD*; Barreiro, Pablo MD, PhD*; Rodríguez-Novoa, Sonia PhD; Pinilla, Javier MD, PhD; Morello, Judit PhD; Martín-Carbonero, Luz MD, PhD*; Tuma, Paula MD*; Medrano, José MD*; Soriano, Vincent MD, PhD*

JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: March 1st, 2010 - Volume 53 - Issue 3 - p 364-368
doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181bd5ce1
Brief Report: Clinical Science

Background: In hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HIV-coinfected patients who failed a course of suboptimal hepatitis C therapy, retreatment with adequate doses and duration of pegylated interferon (pegIFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) is advisable in the presence of compensated advanced liver fibrosis.

Methods: The efficacy and safety of pegIFN-α2a (180 μg/wk) plus RBV (<75 kg: 1000 mg/d; ≥75 kg: 1200 mg/d) given for 12 months was prospectively assessed in HIV/HCV patients with nonresponse or relapse to a prior course of suboptimal hepatitis C therapy. The main endpoint was the achievement of sustained virological response (SVR).

Results: A total of 52 patients were enrolled in the study (78% HCV genotypes 1 or 4; 56% with advanced liver fibrosis). Prior suboptimal regimens were IFN monotherapy (20%), IFN plus RBV (29%), and pegIFN plus RBV 800 mg/d (51%). Overall, 61% were nonresponders and 39% relapsers. Retreatment provided SVR in 30.8% of patients (19.5% for genotypes 1/4 vs. 72.7% for genotypes 2/3; P = 0.002). In multivariate analysis, HCV genotypes 2/3 [OR 22.2, 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.9-166.7, P = 0.003] and RBV plasma trough concentrations at week 4 [OR 3.9 (95% CI, 1.3-11.8), P = 0.01] were the only independent predictors of SVR.

Conclusions: Retreatment with pegIFN-α2a plus weight-based RBV for 12 months permits to achieve HCV clearance in nearly one-third of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients who failed a prior suboptimal course of hepatitis C therapy. Patients with HCV genotypes 2/3 and those with RBV plasma trough levels above 2.07 μg/mL show the highest chances of SVR.

From the *Department of Infectious Diseases; †Pharmacology Unit, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; and ‡HIV Unit, Hospital San Pedro, Logroño, Spain.

Received for publication March 30, 2009; accepted August 3, 2009.

Supported in part by grants from Fundación Investigación y Educación en SIDA (IES), Red de Investigación en SIDA (RIS, ISCIII-RETIC RD06/006), Agencia Lain Entralgo, and the European NEAT network.

Correspondence to: Vincent Soriano, MD, PhD, Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Carlos III, Calle Sinesio Delgado 10, Madrid 28029, Spain (e-mail: vsoriano@dragonet.es).

© 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.