Objectives: To describe insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor-1-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and IGFBP-3 in HIV+ children before and after initiating or changing antiretroviral therapy and to evaluate association of growth and body composition to growth factors at baseline and over time.
Methods: Ninety-seven prepubertal HIV+ children aged 1 month to younger than 13 years were observed over 48 weeks after beginning or changing antiretroviral therapy. Serum IGF-1, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-3 were measured and compared with age- and sex-specific norms. Anthropometric measures were compared as follows: subjects vs matched children from (a) the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to generate z scores and (b) HIV-exposed, uninfected children from Women and Infants Transmission Study; and subjects with normal vs abnormal IGF-1 and IGFBP concentrations at baseline. Anthropometric changes were compared for children whose IGF-1 level normalized vs remaining subjects. Multivariate analysis adjusting for sex, race, and baseline age evaluated associations between anthropometry and IGF-1 and IGFBP concentrations.
Results: In multivariate analysis, lower baseline IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were associated with lower mean weight, height, mid-arm muscle circumference, and mid-thigh circumference z scores. Twenty-four percent of children had a low IGF-1 level at baseline, 50% of whom normalized IGF-1 on study. Children whose IGF-1 normalized had greater increases in mean mid-arm muscle circumference z score (1.00 vs −0.03, P = 0.029), but a trend toward lesser mean height increase (P = 0.082) than remaining subjects. Likewise, in comparison to controls from Women and Infants Transmission Study, mean mid-arm muscle circumference also increased more in children whose IGF-1 normalized (P = 0.024) but mean height changed less (P = 0.003). Fifty-five percent of children had elevated IGFBP-1 at baseline, 69% of whom normalized.
Conclusions: IGF-1 increases and IGFBP-1 decreases in HIV-infected children upon initiation or change in antiretroviral therapy. Improved muscle mass, but not linear growth, is associated with normalized IGF-1 concentration. These findings suggest that IGF-1 may merit evaluation as a potential therapeutic strategy to improve lean body mass in HIV-infected children.