Background: The HIVNET 012 trial in Uganda demonstrated that single-dose nevirapine (NVP) can prevent HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission. NVP resistance (NVPR) mutations were detected in 25% of women 6 to 8 weeks after NVP, with a higher rate of NVPR in women with subtype D than A. This study examined emergence and fading of specific NVPR mutations in women with these subtypes.
Methods: Plasma HIV-1 was analyzed with the ViroSeq genotyping system (Celera Diagnostics, Alameda, CA). Genotypes were obtained from paired samples collected 7 days and 6 to 8 weeks after NVP from 140 women, 83 with subtype A and 57 with subtype D.
Results: The rate of NVPR was similar in women with subtype A vs. D at 7 days but was higher in subtype D than A at 6 to 8 weeks. The higher rate of NVPR in subtype D was explained by at least 2 factors: Y181C faded from detection at a greater rate in women with subtype A (odds ratio = 3.06; 95% CI, 1.04, 8.90) and K103N accumulated at a greater rate in women with subtype D (odds ratio = 1.74; 95% CI, 0.62, 4.87).
Conclusions: HIV-1 subtype influences selection and fading of HIV-1 variants with specific drug resistance mutations after antiretroviral drug exposure.