The survival of persons with AIDS (PWA) has recently improved because of better antiretroviral therapies. Similarly, the prognosis of cancer has also improved. To determine if survival in PWA with cancer has also improved, we compared cancer survival in adults with and without AIDS using data from New York City from 1980 through 2000. Analyses were made for AIDS-related cancers (Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL], and cervical cancer) and for 8 non-AIDS-related cancers (lung, larynx, colorectum, anus, Hodgkin lymphoma, breast, prostate, and testis). Death hazard ratios compared survival in PWA with cancer with that in cancer patients without AIDS, adjusted for age, sex, race, and calendar-time of cancer occurrence. The 24-month survival rate of PWA with cancer (9015 AIDS cancers and 929 non-AIDS-related cancers of 8 types) improved significantly for most cancer types. By 1996 through 2000, the 24-month survival rate in PWA was 58% for Kaposi sarcoma, 41% for peripheral NHL, 29% for central nervous system NHL, and 64% for cervical cancer. For non-AIDS-related cancers, survival of PWA was lowest for lung cancer (10%) but was >50% for most other cancer types. In 1996 through 2000, significant differences in survival between cancer patients with and without AIDS still remained for Hodgkin lymphoma and lung, larynx, and prostate cancers. We conclude that recent improvements in AIDS and cancer care have greatly narrowed the gap in survival between cancer patients with and without AIDS. Clinicians should be encouraged by the improving prognosis and be diligent about detecting and treating cancer in PWA.