Incomplete CD4 T Cell Recovery in HIV-1 Infection After 12 Months of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Is Associated With Ongoing Increased CD4 T Cell Activation and Turnover.Anthony, Kara B.; Yoder, Christian; Metcalf, Julia A.; DerSimonian, Rebecca; Orenstein, Jan M.; Stevens, Randy A.; Falloon, Judy; Polis, Michael A.; Lane, Clifford H.; Sereti, IriniJAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: June 1, 2003 BASIC SCIENCE: PDF Only Abstract Summary: To evaluate the relationship between T cell turnover, immune activation, and CD4 recovery in HIV infection, 32 antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients were studied before and after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Elevated CD4 and CD8 T cell turnover (measured by Ki67) in HIV infection decreased with HAART in blood and lymphoid tissue. Increased peripheral CD4 T cell turnover was strongly associated with immune activation even after viral suppression to less than 50 copies/mL (R = 0.8; p < .001). Increased CD4 T cell turnover correlated strongly with CD4 cell counts both before (R = -0.6; p < .001) and after (R = -0.4; p = .05) HAART. In patients with baseline CD4 cell counts of less than 350/[mu]L, decreases in CD4 T cell turnover with HAART significantly correlated with increases in CD4 cell counts. In addition, persistently elevated levels of CD4 T cell turnover after HAART were associated with incomplete CD4 T cell recovery despite HIV RNA levels of less than 50 copies/mL. These data suggest that immune activation is central to CD4 cell depletion in HIV infection and immune reconstitution with HAART. (C) 2003 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.