Objective: To determine whether diarrhea and intestinal malabsorption during HIV infection alter oral ganciclovir systemic exposure.
Methods: We studied the oral disposition of ganciclovir in 42 HIV-infected patients stratified into three groups: A (n = 15), HIV (stage A and B); B (n = 13), AIDS (stage C); and C (n = 14), AIDS with chronic diarrhea and wasting syndrome (10% or more weight loss). Each patient was evaluated for nutritional (body mass index, serum albumin and transferrin), immunologic (CD4 count, plasma viral load) and intestinal status (D-xylose test, fecal fat and nitrogen excretion, and intestinal permeability). Following an overnight fast, 1 g oral ganciclovir was given to patients. Six blood samples were collected over 24 hours. Serum was analyzed for ganciclovir by high performance liquid chromatography. Drug disposition was characterized using a population pharmacokinetic approach.
Results: Mean intestinal permeability increased as HIV disease progressed (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 for groups A, B, and C, respectively). Average weight-adjusted maximum concentration (Cmax) in group C was twofold more than that in group A and B patients (12.5 versus 6 and 6.4 ng/ml/kg), and average area under the curve (AUC0-[infinity]) was threefold greater in group C patients (193 versus 59 and 65 ng [middle dot] hour/ml/kg in groups A and B, respectively). Mean oral clearance was threefold lower in group C (96 versus 258 and 212 L/hour in groups A and B, respectively).
Conclusion: Because systemic exposure of oral ganciclovir is enhanced in AIDS patients with diarrhea and wasting syndrome, oral ganciclovir therapy may benefit these patients.
(C) 2000 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.