Summary: Although CD4+ T-cell activation has long been shown to promote infection and replication of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and HIV, recent studies have documented that not all activated CD4+ T cells from human and nonhuman primates are susceptible to infection with HIV/SIV, respectively. Activation of CD4+ T cells with anti-CD3 + anti-CD28 conjugated beads led to induction of a state of anti-viral resistance to infection with strains of viruses that primarily use CCR5 as a coreceptor. The studies reported herein were designed to address the mechanism by which anti-CD3 + anti-CD28-Induced stimulation in turn induced antiviral resistance. Results of these studies show that the anti-viral resistance induced by activation of CD4+ T cells with anti-CD3 + anti-CD28 is primarily conferred by the synthesis of tumor necrosis factor-[alpha] (TNF-[alpha]), and highlight a unique regulatory role for TNF-[alpha] in regulating synthesis of MIP-1[alpha], MIP-1[beta], and regulated-on-activation normal Texpressed and secreted cells, which contributes to this state of antiviral resistance to R5-tropic strains of HIV/SIV. However, while TNF-[alpha] has a protective role in antiviral resistance of activated CD4+ T cells to R5-tropic viruses, it enhances CXCR4 expression of CD4+ T cells and mediates increased susceptibility to infection with X4-tropic strains of HIV and recombinant SIVs. The results of the studies reported herein also suggest that it is not the Thl v/s Th2 cytokine profile but the mode of CD4+ T-cell activation that dictates the synthesis of distinct cytokines which regulate the expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors which in turn regulate and confer susceptibility/resistance to R5 v/s X4-tropic HIV and SIV.
(C) 2000 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.