Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants:
doi: 10.1097/01.JAA.0000432568.14065.54
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OSTEOPOROSIS, PAGE 20

1. According to the US Surgeon General, a White woman over the age of 50 years has what percent chance of suffering a fracture during the rest of her life?

a. 1% to 5%

b. 10% to 15%

c. 20% to 25%

d. greater than 40%

2. What causes osteoporosis?

a. bone resorption that exceeds bone formation

b. bone formation that exceeds bone resorption

3. Which assessment is best for estimating a patient's fracture risk?

a. bone mineral density (BMD) testing alone

b. clinical risk factor assessment alone

c. BMD measurements and clinical risk factors

d. neither BMD measurements nor clinical risk factors

4. Which group of men would not be indicated for BMD testing under the NAMS guidelines?

a. all men age 50 years and older

b. all men age 50 and older with a history of fracture

c. men with a history of glucocorticoid use for more than 3 months and other secondary causes

d. men with a family history of osteoporosis or fractures in the absence of trauma

5. What is the mechanism of action of bisphosphonates?

a. increase calcium absorption in the small intestine

b. inhibit osteoclast activity at sites of active remodeling

c. selectively modulate estrogen receptors

d. stimulate osteoblast activity as a recombinant human parathyroid hormone

6. How much calcium should women age 51 years and older and men age 71 years and older consume each day?

a. 200 mg

b. 500 mg

c. 1,000 mg

d. 1,200 mgSICKLE CELL DISEASE, PAGE 28

7. How many African Americans in the US are affected by SCD?

a. 1 out of every 5

b. 1 out of every 50

c. 1 out of every 500

d. 1 out of every 5,000

8. Which statement is not correct about people with sickle cell trait?

a. They have a normal life expectancy.

b. They are at risk of sudden death.

c. They have clinical symptoms of the disease.

d. They pass the trait on to their children.

9. Which of the following is the primary complaint of patients with SCD?

a. abnormal swelling

b. difficulty breathing

c. fever

d. pain

10. Which is the most common type of medication for managing SCD pain?

a. antidepressants

b. benzodiazepines

c. nonopioid analgesics

d. opioid analgesics

11. Why are patients with SCD at increased risk of infection from Streptococcus pneumonia and Haemophilus influenza?

a. The spleen may have been removed or is unable to filter encapsulated bacteria.

b. RBCs have reduced flexibility that impairs blood flow.

c. The sickled RBCs cause ischemia.

d. Patients with SCD have no increased risk of infection.

12. Which represents the most effective way to manage pain in patients with SCD?

a. pharmacologic interventions

b. behavioral interventions

c. complementary and alternative interventions

d. all of the above

© 2013 American Academy of Physician Assistants.

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