ABSTRACT: Nocturia, or awakening one or more times to void at night, becomes clinically significant with two or more voids a night. In the past, nocturia has typically been viewed as a symptom of benign prostatic hyperplasia and/or overactive bladder syndrome. However, newer evidence supports that this is no longer just a symptom but a medical condition that warrants further workup and treatment given its effect on quality of life. The negative effects of nocturia include sleep fragmentation, decreased productivity at work, and increased risk of falls and fractures. A workup to find the underlying cause of nocturia will help guide treatment, which may include pharmacologic agents.