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Physical Examination of the Knee: Meniscus, Cartilage, and Patellofemoral Conditions

Bronstein, Robert D. MD; Schaffer, Joseph C. MD

JAAOS - Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons: May 2017 - Volume 25 - Issue 5 - p 365–374
doi: 10.5435/JAAOS-D-15-00464
Review Article

The knee is one of the most commonly injured joints in the body. Its superficial anatomy enables diagnosis of the injury through a thorough history and physical examination. Examination techniques for the knee described decades ago are still useful, as are more recently developed tests. Proper use of these techniques requires understanding of the anatomy and biomechanical principles of the knee as well as the pathophysiology of the injuries, including tears to the menisci and extensor mechanism, patellofemoral conditions, and osteochondritis dissecans. Nevertheless, the clinical validity and accuracy of the diagnostic tests vary. Advanced imaging studies may be useful adjuncts.

From the Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY.

Neither of the following authors nor any immediate family member has received anything of value from or has stock or stock options held in a commercial company or institution related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article: Dr. Bronstein and Dr. Schaffer.

Received September 29, 2015

Accepted May 12, 2016

© 2017 by American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
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