Multidisciplinary rehabilitation for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain can be provided on an inpatient or on an outpatient basis, but the rationale for choosing between the two programs is unknown. The aim of the study was to identify differences between patients provided inpatient or outpatient rehabilitation. It was a cross-sectional study within usual care. The study included 415 adult rehabilitation patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain with complex psychosocial problems. The measurements used were demographics, Short Form 36 Health Survey, Dutch Personality Questionnaire, Coping with Pain Questionnaire, Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, Symptom Checklist 90-Revised. In the multiple logistic analysis, five variables remained significantly different between inpatients and outpatients: inpatients were less likely to have a child aged less than 12 years and to have neck pain; their physical and social functioning were poorer; and their current pain period had lasted longer. The total explained variance was 26%. Five variables were identified as influencing the decision on inpatient or outpatient rehabilitation, but the explained variance was low.