The current crisis in Syria has greatly escalated need, while simultaneously damaging infrastructure within the country. In order for humanitarian efforts to be effective, understanding the mental health profile of the population concerned, pre-existing mental health system, resources and gaps, as well as an evaluation of the current service situation is vital. This paper provides an analysis of the shifting resources and infrastructure available to the affected populations in Syria, complementing the systematic review of mental health outcomes elsewhere in this issue. Assessment results from Syria are presented, and capacities and gaps assessed. This article describes how previous, protracted humanitarian and development centred inter-agency efforts to evaluate and improve the mental health and psychosocial system in Syria can be applied as a foundation, and adjusted to address the current internally displaced persons and refugee crises in the country.