Abstract: Of the 3 main soil-associated bacteria, Nocardia, Actinomyces, and Streptomyces, the latter is the least well known. It rarely causes infection in humans. The most common infection with Streptomyces is mycetoma acquired through traumatic inoculation. Even less common is Streptomyces infection without direct soil exposure. The focus of our study is Streptomyces infections in immunocompromised patients with cancer.