Abstract: The discovery and subsequent widespread use of antimicrobials has made postoperative acute suppurative parotitis (ASP) a rare disease. Risk factors for developing ASP include diabetes and other immunocompromising conditions. When diagnosed, ASP is typically caused by Staphylococcus aureus and commensals including anaerobes. The Streptococcus anginosus group is part of the normal flora in the human oropharynx and is associated with pyogenic infections in the head, neck, and genitourinary and gastrointestinal tract. Studies have demonstrated that the S. anginosus group frequently possesses a unique polysaccharide capsule that inhibits phagocytosis. We describe a patient with diabetes and human immunodeficiency virus infection who developed S. anginosus group parotitis 1 week after splenectomy.