Uveitis secondary to syphilis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is a well-documented but unusual phenomenon. We report the case of a 66-year-old man with HIV recently diagnosed with early latent syphilis coinfection who presented with an acute onset of ocular symptoms and whose condition was diagnosed as anterior uveitis. After administration of appropriate antibiotic therapy for syphilitic uveitis, his ocular symptoms resolved completely. We additionally provide a literature review on the presentation and management of syphilitic uveitis. This paper highlights the importance of considering syphilis in the differential of ocular symptoms, particularly in a patient with HIV, and also demonstrates that prompt evaluation and management are of paramount significance in an otherwise deleterious disease.