Vibrionaceae is a bacterial family of motile facultative gram-negative bacilli. Several species can be pathogenic to humans and cause severe disease, especially in patients with risk factors. Vibrio-mediated diseases have been reported worldwide and are usually associated with exposure to brackish or saltwater and seafood. The most common infections depending on the species are gastroenteritis, wound and soft-tissue infections including necrotizing fasciitis, and primary sepsis. The most common risk factors for severe infection include chronic liver disease, diabetes mellitus, malignancy, immunocompromise including HIV infection, iron storage disorders, heart disease including heart failure, and chronic renal failure. Depending on the species, occasional cases of severe infection may occur in immunocompetent patients without evidence of other risk factors. Several antibiotics are usually active against most pathogenic species in both families. Increasing resistance in various locations worldwide has been reported to tetracyclines, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ciprofloxacin especially for toxigenic Vibrio cholerae.