Introduction: Epstein-Barr virus has been a leading candidate as a trigger for several autoimmune diseases. We describe an antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated systemic vasculitis as the initial presenting illness of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
Case Report and Results: The patient’s condition was diagnosed as ANCA-associated systemic vasculitis in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus infection because of a high level of ANCA level, crescent glomerulonephritis in pathology, and clinical signs and symptoms compatible with systemic vasculitis. He also had human immunodeficiency virus–associated lymphadenopathy with scattered Epstein-Barr virus RNA–positive cells and reactive germinal centers.
Conclusion: Epstein-Barr virus genome was found in reactive lymph nodes and, therefore, may be associated with the immunopathogenesis of vasculitis.