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Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice:
doi: 10.1097/IPC.0b013e3182601ea1
Case Reports

Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibody–Associated Systemic Vasculitis is Associated With Epstein-Barr Virus in the Setting of HIV Infection

Mirsaeidi, Mehdi MD, MPH*; Syed, Fatima MD*; Jaffe, Elaine S. MD

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Abstract

Introduction: Epstein-Barr virus has been a leading candidate as a trigger for several autoimmune diseases. We describe an antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated systemic vasculitis as the initial presenting illness of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

Case Report and Results: The patient’s condition was diagnosed as ANCA-associated systemic vasculitis in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus infection because of a high level of ANCA level, crescent glomerulonephritis in pathology, and clinical signs and symptoms compatible with systemic vasculitis. He also had human immunodeficiency virus–associated lymphadenopathy with scattered Epstein-Barr virus RNA–positive cells and reactive germinal centers.

Conclusion: Epstein-Barr virus genome was found in reactive lymph nodes and, therefore, may be associated with the immunopathogenesis of vasculitis.

© 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

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