Introduction: We report the first case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Gemella sanguinis.
Case: A 27-year-old woman with a history of rheumatic heart disease with mechanical aortic and mitral valve replacements reported a recent toothache treated with amoxicillin, with improvement. Several days later, she began to have intermittent fever, weakness, sore throat, and palpitations. A transesophageal echocardiogram revealed a 1.0-cm vegetation and suggestion of a perivalvular abscess, and blood culture grew Gemella sanguinis. The patient underwent a successful valve repair, and treatment with ceftriaxone was continued for a total of 6 weeks from the date of valve replacement.
Discussion and Conclusion: Gemella species are bacterial flora of the oropharyngeal, gastrointestinal, and/or urogenital tracts of humans. Most cases of native valve endocarditis reported have been attributed to G morbillorum and G haemolysans. The identification of Gemella isolates is a challenge. 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was used as the method of choice for identifying Gemella; however, with the updated Vitek 2 colorimetric cards, Streptococcaceae including Gemella species were better identified. General principles of therapy for Gemella species are the same as for the nutritionally variant streptococci. Our patient had reported a toothache, and oral infection confirmed by dental evaluation was the likely source of bacteremia and endocarditis. Current recommendations for care at completion of treatment of endocarditis include a thorough dental evaluation. We suggest that oral health should be evaluated even before placement of the prosthesis.