Treatment of HIV-infected individuals with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in an impressive reduction in the incidence of opportunistic infections (OIs). However, some patients develop paradoxical infections (de novo or flares of previously known OIs) shortly after the initiation of HAART, a phenomenon known as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In addition to OIs developing in the setting of IRIS, more recently, non-Hodgkin lymphomas have also been reported to occur in this context. To our knowledge, this is the first case of pericardial large B-cell lymphoma reported in an HIV-infected individual shortly after the initiation of HAART. We review the literature on IRIS-associated lymphomas apropos to this case report.
From the *Internal Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine at Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton; †Department of Medicine, JFK Medical Center, Palm Beach County; ‡Clinical Pathology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami; §Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami; ∥Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, JFK Medical Center, Palm Beach County; and ¶University of Miami Miller School of Medicine at Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.
Reprints: Larry M. Bush, MD, FACP, Atlantis Medical Center, Suite 104, 5503 S Congress Ave, Atlantis, FL 33462. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.