Pasteurella multocida is a facultatively anaerobic gram-negative organism, which causes widespread zoonotic infections in humans. We report a case of P. multocida septicemia in a 58-year-old dairy farmer with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. This case report illustrates the risk of serious infections with P. multocida in patients with febrile neutropenia. We also review the medical literature of P. multocida bacteremia in neutropenic patients after chemotherapy for hematologic and solid organ cancers. We also discuss empirical antibiotic choices in patients with P. multocida infections.