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Role of Inflammatory Markers in the Diagnosis and Management of Infective Endocarditis

Watkins, Richard R. MD, MS*†; Lemonovich, Tracy L. MD‡

Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice:
doi: 10.1097/IPC.0b013e3181aba67c
Review Articles

Multiple studies have evaluated various inflammatory markers in the management of infective endocarditis. Currently only one inflammatory marker, rheumatoid factor, is part of the modified Duke criteria for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis. A review of the strengths and weaknesses of these markers follows. Recommendations for and against their clinical use are presented.

Author Information

From the *Divison of Infectious Diseases, Akron General Medical Center, Akron; †Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown; and ‡Division of Infectious Diseases and HIV Medicine, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH.

Reprints: Richard R. Watkins, MD, MS, Akron General Medical Center, 224 West Exchange St., Suite #290, Akron, OH 44302. E-mail:

The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.

© 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.