Enteric gram-negative bacilli such as Escherichia coli are the most common pathogens of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in patients with liver disease, followed by gram-positive organisms such as pneumococci. Listeria monocytogenes is known to cause meningitis, endocarditis, and/or bacteremia in neonates, older persons, and immunocompromised hosts. This organism is a rare pathogen in SBP. We report a 44-year-old man with a history of hepatitis C and alcohol-related liver cirrhosis who presented with L. monocytogenes SBP and provide an updated literature review of Listeria SBP from its first description by Rheingold et al [Ann Intern Med. 1977;87(4):455-456] to one of the largest case series by Nolla-Salas et al [Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97(6):1507-1511] and a more recent description by Suarez et al [Med Clin. 2007;129(6):218-221].