Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the bone regenerative capability of using unsintered hydroxyapatite/poly-L-lactic acid (uHA/PLLA) mesh and titanium mesh.
Materials and Methods: Adult male white rabbits (n = 24) were divided into 2 groups. After incising along the mandible, 3 × 5 mm bone defects were made in both sides and covered by an uHA/PLLA mesh (n = 12) or a titanium mesh (n = 12) on the right side but no mesh on the left side (n = 12). The rabbits were sacrificed at 1, 2, and 4 weeks postoperatively, and formalin-fixed specimens were embedded in acrylic resin. The specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. For immunohistochemical analysis, the specimens were treated with BMP-2.
Results: The titanium group and uHA/PLLA group were significantly larger than the control group regarding the bone area ratio postoperatively at 2 and 4 weeks. However, there were no significant differences between the uHA/PLLA group and titanium group regarding the BMP-2.
Conclusions: This study suggested that the uHA/PLLA mesh could increase new bone formation more than the absence of a mesh in bone defects. However, there was no significant difference between uHA/PLLA mesh and the titanium mesh in bone augmentation.