Purpose: This study was an immunohistochemical evaluation of microvessel density (MVD) in sinus augmentation procedures with autologous bone and anorganic bone (Bio-Oss®).
Materials and Methods: Twenty-four patients (14 men and 10 women – mean age of 48 years with a range from 34 to 53 years) participated in this study. All the patients presented a maxillary partial unilateral edentulism involving the premolar/molar areas, with a residual alveolar ridge height of about 4 to 5 mm. Twelve patients received sinus augmentation procedures with 100% autologous bone; 100% Bio-Oss was used in the other 12 patients. Endosseous implants were inserted after a mean period of 3 months. As control, the portions of preexisting subantral bone were used. The mean value of the MVD in control bone was 23.4 +/− 1.3. The mean value of the MVD in the sinuses augmented with autologous bone was 29.0 +/− 2.4. The mean value of the MVD in the sinuses augmented with Bio-Oss was 23.8 +/− 2.2.
Results: The statistical analysis showed that the differences of the MVD between control bone and sinuses augmented with Bio-Oss were not statistically significant (P = 0.52), while the difference of the MVD between sinuses augmented with autologous bone and those augmented with Bio-Oss was statistically significant (P = 0.0008).
Conclusions: Autologous bone may act not only as a passive filling material in bone defects but may also release osteogenic growth factors; and particles of autologous bone seem to contain vital osteoprogenitor cells.