This study aimed to compare the prognosis of patients with synchronous endometrial and ovarian cancer (SEOC) to matched controls with either endometrial cancer (EC) or ovarian cancer (OC).
A retrospective case-control study including all patients with SEOC who had been treated at 5 European tertiary gynecologic oncology centers between 1996 and 2011 and patients with either EC or OC matched for age, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, histology, year of diagnosis, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score.
The study cohort comprised 77, 132, and 126 patients with SEOC, EC, and OC, respectively. The patient characteristics confirmed an equal distribution of matching factors, and the median follow-up did not differ (P = 0.44). 48.1% of the patients with SEOC showed early FIGO stage I for both EC and OC. The 5-year PFS rates differed between SEOC and EC (76.3% vs 86.3%; P = 0.047) but not the 5-year overall survival rates (71.6% vs 79.8%; P = 0.12) and did not differ between SEOC and OC (76.3% vs 63.8%; P = 0.19 and 71.6% vs 69.3%; P = 0.61, respectively). After the adjustment for the FIGO stage of the 2 components of SEOC, neither PFS nor overall survival rates were different.
Prognosis of patients with SEOC tended to be the same in comparison with matched controls with either one EC or OC. Therefore, it could be considered that patients with SEOC may be eligible for clinical trials of the advanced tumor component if no additional therapy is indicated for the other component.