The oncological outcome regarding disease-free survival and overall survival after radical vaginal trachelectomy (RVT) is the same as the rates after radical hysterectomy. We aim to analyze predictive and risk factors and death in patients with cervical cancer undergoing fertility preservation by laparoscopic lymphadenectomy and RVT.
Three hundred twenty patients with cervical cancer underwent RVT between March 1995 and February 2013. In our study, we examined recurrence rates analyzed by risk factors. We classified the presence of lymphovascular space invasion, depth of tumor infiltration, tumor size, and tumor grading as risk factors. The mean follow-up time was 48 months.
Ten of the 320 patients had cancer recurrence. Recurrence appeared at a mean time of 26.1 months (3–108 months) after RVT. Five patients died within 8.8 months (4–15 months) after recurrence was diagnosed. Two of these 5 patients had distant metastasis at the time of recurrence. Five patients were treated successfully by surgery, and 4 patients were treated successfully by chemotherapy. The mean follow-up after the recurrence of these 5 patients is 76 months (6–120 months). None of the 10 patients with recurrences in our series showed significant high-risk factors.
There seems to be no pattern in the recurrence of cancer after RVT. It is strictly mandatory to follow up the patients closely every 3 months after RVT to diagnose recurrence at an early stage so therapeutic options such as chemoradiation are still available. Once distant metastasis occurs, prognosis is not good.