Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of maternal reproductive cancer diagnosis on fetal birth outcomes.
Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study among women with a singleton live birth and diagnosed with reproductive cancer in the state of Florida (cases). We matched cases to cancer-free controls using selected sociodemographic and pregnancy-related clinical conditions. We applied logistic regression with correction for intracluster correlation using generalized estimating equations.
Results: Overall, 3212 (0.21%) of pregnant women had a diagnosis of reproductive cancer. Affected women had a 24% and 33% elevated risk for low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) infants, respectively. Compared to their white counterparts, black women with reproductive cancer had a greater risk for LBW [odds ratio (OR), 1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.37–2.44], small for gestational age (SGA) [OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.23–2.17], and PTB (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.12–192) infants. Black women with breast cancer demonstrated significantly higher risks of LBW [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.37; 95% CI, 1.56–3.60], PTB (AOR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.15–2.56), and SGA (AOR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.12–2.64) when compared to women of their racial group with no reproductive cancer.
Conclusions: Diagnosis of reproductive cancer before or during pregnancy and within 30 days after birth is associated with adverse fetal outcomes (LBW, PTB, and SGA). These results highlight the importance of preconception and intraconception care of women with reproductive cancer diagnosis.